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Study of discoloured iron-gall ink inscriptions – case of the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines from Krzeszow

Aleksandra Surmak

Abstracts

This article describes the study of iron-gall inks in the Gradual of Lviv Benedictine from Krzeszow (Poland). During the conservation and restoration work some untypical color changes of iron-gall inks were observed. This phenomenon contributed to further analysis of the inks in the manuscript and for this purpose some instrumental analysis were conducted, i.a. macro-X-Ray Fluorescence (macro-XRF), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and LIBS. The results provided information about the composition of iron-gall inks in the Gradual from Krzeszów and helped to identify the probable cause of the change in the text layer.

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Introduction

1The iron-gall inks are undoubtedly one of the most important forms of written media used since the earliest times. Due to its durability, low cost and easiness of application on a surface, they have become extraordinarily popular and had been used until the dawn of the 20th century1. Numerous researches and works have been conducted on their history, formula and properties. However, the processes of their degradation and the restoration methods of objects damaged by the inks are the subject of continuous scientific inquiry in research centres all over the world for over 25 years.

  • 2  STRLIČ, M., CSÉFALVAYOVÁ, L., KOLAR, J., MENART, E., KOSEK, J., BARRY, C., HIGGITT, C., CASSAR, M. (...)

2The most commonly discussed group within the literature on the subject of inks are iron-gall inks. Their composition and the fabrication techniques  differ depending on the time and place of their origin. However, the main ingredients have always remained unchanged; these include vegetable tannin, vitriol (iron salts), binder (Arabic gum)2 and water.

  • 3  LISZEWSKA, W., Konserwacja zabytkowych pergaminów. Nowe metody uzupełniania ubytków z użyciem włók (...)
  • 4  SOBUCKI, W., Konserwacja papieru. Zagadnienia chemiczne, Warsaw, The Ministry of Culture and Natio (...)
  • 5  WAGNER, B., TOMCZUK, U., CZAJKA, A., „Jak można badać wżery atramentowe i co z tych badań potem wy (...)

3However, the available modern technologies show that, instead of or in parallel with iron, other transition metals (e.g. Cu, Mn)3 which also create colourful complexities. Their presence results i.a. from the substitution of iron salts with cheaper replacement products of lower quality4. It seems that the presence of the remaining transition metals may significantly affect the given steps taken during the restoration works, especially in case of objects affected by corrosion5.

Degradation of iron-gall inks in manuscript codes - colour changes

  • 6  WOŹNIAK, M., JARMIŃSKA, D., „Psałterz Floriański pod lupą konserwatorów, Biuletyn Informacyjny Ko (...)

4The most commonly observed degradation effects in the case of iron-gall inks in antique objects are chipping and sheddingof text layers6. The most serious of all effects is ink corrosion, causing damage to the text, as well as the base itself, leading even to complete deterioration of the object.

  • 7  SOBUCKI, W., „Atramenty żelazowo-galusowe”, Ochrona Zabytków, 1996, vol 49, n°3,p.282-283.
  • 8  SOBUCKI, W., op.cit., pp.281-191.
  • 9  FUCHS, R., „Wżery historycznych atramentów i tuszy. Problemy ich restauracji”, Ochrona Zabytków, 1 (...)
  • 10  SOBUCKI, W. (2013), p.80.

5Another type of observed degradation of inks, although much less frequently described, is  colour changes. This phenomenon often occurs in ancient manuscripts. The colour of inks observed today reaches from brown-black to light brown, while the differences between them may appear within a single page, as well as the whole block. The reasons for the formation of colour changes are mainly connected with the composition and may have occurred at the very moment of placing the ink on the base. The original colour depended on, i.a., the freshness of a ready product or the quality of the main ingredients and supplements in use7. According to the  literature, the main, though not the only reason for colour changes is the differences in proportions between the two main ingredients: tannins and vitriol8, and more precisely, through the excess of free Fe3+. These ions originate from impurities commonly occurring in vitriol, and their content may vary from 2 to 10%9. In case of a higher amount of Fe3+ and as a result of the occurring reactions, "various organic products" which have brown colouration appear, and the ink becomes brown as early as at the moment of writing. These changes have been observed particularly in the case of inks which have been treated with agents reducing their pH, e.g. alum or copper-containing vitriol10.

  • 11  FUCHS, R., op.cit., p.172.

6The literature also mentions colour changes that occur during the formation of ink corrosion. Water-containing iron oxides with yellow colouration (e.g. goethite FeO(OH)) form on the surface of the ink. The layer of yellow oxides forms as early as 3-4 years after application, as well as white layers of potassium alum (KAl(SO4)2 and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4). The reaction occurs in an environment of increased humidity and its fluctuation is of great importance: the bigger the fluctuations, the more rapid and visible are the chemical changes are in the inks11.

  • 12  FUCHS, R., op.cit., p.174.

7In the context of the text discolouration, the "red-yellow ink corrosion" should be noted as well. This kind of degradation is characterized by tint ranging from the ochre to reddish and by the writing turning into a very fine powder that falls off the surface. R. Fuchs associates them with pseudo-iron-gall inks, which have large amounts of unreacted iron (III) sulfate and small amounts of tannins in their composition. Similarly, as it has been described earlier, the oxidation of iron and the formation of its oxides in a yellow (FeO(OH)) or red ochre (Fe2O3) variety occurs also in this case12.

Object of the study

  • 13  BYCZKOWSKA-SZTABA, J., „Graduał benedyktynek lwowskich — zabytek monodii chorałowej. Próba analizy (...)
  • 14  All studies will be published in the conference proceedings: SURMAK, A., PRONOBIS-GAJDZIS, M., „Ni (...)

8The subject of this article is atypical colour changes of iron-gall inks which have been noticed during restoration works on the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines from Krzeszow, dated at the end of the 16th century13. The observed phenomenon has been studied as part of a master's thesis, performed under the direction of PhD Małgorzata Pronobis-Gajdzis. The aim of the thesis was to analyse the media of the writing and painting layer of the book: their composition and properties, and their reciprocal influence. The article presents only the study on iron-gall inks14.

  • 15  The conservation and restoration of Gradual of Lviv Benedictines from Krzeszow was a part of maste (...)

9The Gradual from Krzeszów is a richly illuminated, gold-plated and large (57x 38 x 15 cm) manuscript code (Ill.1). Its block consists of 211 parchment cards on which text and musical notation have been fully created with the use of iron-gall ink, and the paint with paints based on various pigments and binders. The volume has heavy organic binding composed of oak boards covered with brown calf leather, tanned with vegetable-based tannins. The linings were equipped with massive brass fittings, protecting the cover material, and two clasps in the form of two belt fasteners ended with buckles.15

Fig.1 The Gradual of Lviv Benedictines

Fig.1 The Gradual of Lviv Benedictines

Photograph  of two decorated pages of The Gradual of Lviv Benedictines

Credits A. Skowroński.

10The observed changes occur locally and concern solely the parts of the text that are in contact with the blue paint (Ill.2), whose composition revealed smalt with an addition of white lead in the arabic gum binder. The changes appear within the whole block of the book and affect over a half of its pages, and the ink writing in these places clearly differs from others and its colour ranges from brown to orange-yellow (Ill.3).

Fig.2 Diagram of colour changes formation within a layer of text

Fig.2 Diagram of colour changes formation within a layer of text

Diagram showing the text and paint layer on the parchment – a colour changes appears when they are in contact

Credits A. Surmak.

Fig.3 Example of colour changes of iron-gall ink in the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines

Fig.3 Example of colour changes of iron-gall ink in the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines

Colour changes occurring on the initial “B”

Credits A. Surmak.

Aim and methodology of the study

  • 16  Therefore the impact of parchment on the formation of iron-gall inks changes was excluded.

11The aim of the conducted study was to determine the causes of the phenomenon observed Gradual from Krzeszów. After preliminary observations, it was assumed that the main reason for the colour changes was the composition of the blue paint. However, the influence of the ink itself, whose ingredients may have reacted with the paint, was not excluded16. During the conducted works, the paint and the text were studied. The performed measurements allowed for the determination of the elemental composition of the studied inks and for their comparison. They were a part of the studies conducted under the master’s thesis and they contributed to the analyses of the blue paint.

  • 17 ROGÓŻ, J.,Zastosowanie technik nieniszczących w badaniach konserwatorskich malowideł ściennych, Tor (...)

12The first step of the inks examinations was the observation of the cards in visible light and with the use non-destructive optical methods17: infrared reflectography and ultraviolet fluorescence. On the basis of preliminary observations, places for conducting measurements directly on the object (in situ) were selected. The following non-destructive tests were performed: macro-X-Ray Fluorescence (macro-XRF) and OCT (Optical coherence tomography), as well as micro-destructive LIBS (Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy).

UV fluorescence and IR reflectography of the Gradual's cards

  • 18  Photos were taken and processed by the author and MA Adam Cupa, Department of Technology and Paint (...)

13The observations included selected cards of the block that contained a text layer, one changed and one unchanged. The appearance under ultraviolet light (maximum UV excitation – 365 nm; image registration – 400-700 nm) and infrared reflectography (840-1000 nm) were registered18.

  • 19  The difference in the appearance of the inks results from their composition – greyish ink probably (...)

14The text layer on all of the cards appears black under UV radiation, irrespectively of its true colour or state of preservation, which could confirm more than one iron-gall ink presence which absorbs radiation (Ill.4). In the case of a number of cards analysed in near-infrared (IR), the whole text partially disappears due to the use of ingredients partially transparent to the radiation19. The greatest differences, both in visible light, in UV fluorescence and in near infrared light, are noticeable on page 77, which clearly indicate the use of two different types of iron-gall ink (Ill.5). While comparing the discoloured and non-discoloured inks, the visual differences are small and difficult to distinguish.

Fig.4 UV fluorescence of inks on page 77

Fig.4 UV fluorescence of inks on page 77

Comparison of inks in visible light (left) and their UV fluorescence image (right)

Credits A. Cupa.

Fig.5 IR reflectography of inks on page 77

Fig.5 IR reflectography of inks on page 77

Comparison of inks in visible light (left) and IR reflectography (right). The colour difference between inks on the same page isn’t visible in the first photo. The difference is visible only in IR reflectography.

Credits A. Cupa.

Macro-X-Ray Fluorescence (macro-XRF) of iron-gall inks

  • 20  The measurements were performed, described and interpreted by the author andPh. D.Professor of Phy (...)

15The examination has been conducted in order to identify the composition of the inks used to create the text layer. The analysis has been conducted directly on the object with the use of a large M6 JetStream20 X-ray fluorescence scanner (macro-XRF) produced by Bruker-Nano GmbH in Berlin, Germany. The instrument is equipped with a rhodium (Rh) cathode with polycapillary optics, 50kV/0.6 mA, with no filter and a detector: SSD with zirconic window. The detection has been performed in air.

16The conducted tests enabled a detailed determination of the elemental composition of the selected inks. On the basis of the test results on three random places, a difference in composition is clear. All of them reveal iron as the main ingredient, the other elements (i.a. Cu, Hg, K, Zn) appear in various proportions (Ill.6, Ill.7, Ill.8).

Fig.6 MacroXRF test results of iron-gall inks on page 94 recto

Fig.6 MacroXRF test results of iron-gall inks on page 94 recto

Elemental composition of the text layer. Dominating elements: Fe, Hg, K, Pb.

Credits P. Targowski.

Fig.7 MacroXRF test results of iron-gall inks on page 120 verso

Fig.7 MacroXRF test results of iron-gall inks on page 120 verso

Elemental composition of the text layer. Dominating elements: Fe, Hg, K.

Credits P. Targowski.

Fig.8 MacroXRF test results of iron-gall inks on page 183 verso

Fig.8 MacroXRF test results of iron-gall inks on page 183 verso

Elemental composition of the text layer. Dominating elements: Fe, K, Cu.

Credits P. Targowski.

Optical Coherence Tomography of iron-gall inks

17The OCT examination has been conducted in order to determine the possible difference in appearance of the discoloured and non-discoloured inks, in connection with a probable presence of a forming layer of oxides. The OCT is used only on the surface or transparent three dimensions objects.  The test places have been selected on the basis of observations of the cards in visible light.

  • 21 Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT) was constructed by the Team of Interdisciplinary Physics and Comp (...)
  • 22  IWANICKA, M., „Przykłady zastosowania Tomografii Optycznej (OCT) do badań materiałowych i analizy (...)

18An OCT optical tomograph21 has been used to perform the tests. Optical Coherence Tomography is an optical tomography technique and is applied in medical diagnostics (especially in ophthalmology) and other fields such as those connected with arts and architecture22. This method is fast, contactless and non-destructive which bears great importance also in the field of cultural heritage objects.

19In OCT, the iron-gall ink creates a distinctive layer on the surface of the parchment that is transparent to near infrared (Ill.9). During the examination of a text layer of the Gradual, no differences in the writing surface have been discovered between the discoloured and non-discoloured inks. The migration of the inks to the inside of the parchment could not be detected because of too high opacity of parchment.

Fig.9 OCT examination of iron-gall inks

Fig.9 OCT examination of iron-gall inks

OCT measurement results of iron-gall inks on page 120 verso. The scan shows two different layers: parchment without the text layer is not transparent. In the other side the ink make the transparent layer on the surface of parchment card. Below: Photographies of the examined iron-gall ink text

Credits M. Iwanicka.

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of iron-gall inks

  • 23  Analysisperformed by PhD Ewa Kaszewska of the Institute of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nic (...)

20The aim of the conducted examination was an attempt to identify the elements present in the iron-gall ink in discoloured and non-discoloured places. The LIBS technique allows the determination of the occurring elements and the level of their migration deep inside the studied material (e.g. parchment). The identification of the elements which migrate into the parchment and react with the blue paint was crucial. For the purposes of the examination, an area of parchment covered with ink (point a) has been selected, the bottom side of the card that was not coloured (clear parchment), as well as a discoloured area (point b) - ink on parchment and the smalt picture layer. LLA Instruments GmbH Echelle Spectra Analyser ESA 4000 has been applied in the examination23 (Ill.11).

Fig.10. LIBS examination of iron-gall ink inscription on page 120 verso

Fig.10. LIBS examination of iron-gall ink inscription on page 120 verso

a. iron-gall ink on parchment, b. iron-gall ink on parchment and the smalt picture layer.

Credits E. Kaszewska.

Fig.11 LIBS examination of the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines

Fig.11 LIBS examination of the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines

Page 120 verso during the examination of iron-gall ink without the colour changes

Credits M. Iwanicka

21As a result of the surface examination, the elemental composition of the ink in points a and b have been identified.

Dominating elements: Ca, Fe, Na

22Additions: Al, K, Sr, Cu, Zn, Mg, Ti (large amounts - only on the surface)

23Trace amounts: Ba, Mn, C, Si, Ag, Pb, Cd, Sb, Sn, Hg

24An additional stratigraphic analysis of the ink layers has been performed with LIBS inside of the object (ink-parchment-smalt), for the following layers on parchment card:

  • discoloured ink inscription (b) + parchment + smalt picture layer

  • non-discoloured ink inscription (a) + parchment

25Based on the observed changes in element concentration, it has been discovered that their amount decreases with subsequently deeper measurements (shots) of the examined material. For the majority of the elements (Fe, Cu, Ca, Al., Mg), the changes of concentration occur similarly. A difference can be observed on the occasion of copper and zinc, when during the first two to three measurements their larger concentration has been discovered in the discoloured ink (Ill.12, Ill.13). Despite an unequivocal result, the difference between their amounts is minor. The performed measurements did not provide in a clear answer on the issue of differences in elemental composition of the discoloured and non-discoloured inks. Most probably, it would require further studies in order to determine whether the elemental composition influences the inks.

Fig.12 Results of LIBS examination

Fig.12 Results of LIBS examination

Cu content in iron-gall ink layer on page 120 verso. Differences between non-discoloured ink inscription (red point) and discoloured ink inscription (blue point).

Credits E. Kaszewska.

Fig.13 Results of LIBS examination

Fig.13 Results of LIBS examination

Zn content in iron-gall ink layer on page 120 verso. Differences between non-discoloured ink inscription (red point) and discoloured ink inscription (blue point).

Credits E. Kaszewska.

Conclusion

26The conducted study did not clearly indicate that the colour changes in the text layer of the Gradual from Krzeszów are a direct result of the iron-gall ink’s ingredients. It proves the assumption that the main cause, though not the only one, lies in the paint layer - the smalt with an addition of white lead. However, the performed analyses have allowed for better understanding of the used writing medium.

  • 24  HAHN, O., “Analyses of Iron Gall and Carbon Inks by Means of X-ray Fluorescence Analysis: A Non-De (...)

27Test methods were chosen because of the availability and the ability to examine the elemental composition of inks (macro-XRF), to determine the presence of additional layers on the text and migration of elements into the parchment (LIBS). Thanks to the macro-XRF method, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the inks has been identified, which appeared to be very diverse in all of the book. Even within a single page, the ink composition was nonuniform, which is proved by observations of the card in visual, UV and IR light. The obtained results correlate with the present-day studies in the field of iron-gall inks24. The performed instrumental examinations indicate the use of a number of ink types or, what is more feasible, one whose composition may have changed in the vessel with time. These differences, and particularly the occurrence of impurities originating from other metals, may have had an influence on the instability of the iron-gall complex and on the rate of colour changes. Transition metals may have had a significant role, whose presence was identified during the macroXRF examination and the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

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Notes

1  The Iron Gall Ink Website, http://irongallink.org [accessed 8.12.2013].

2  STRLIČ, M., CSÉFALVAYOVÁ, L., KOLAR, J., MENART, E., KOSEK, J., BARRY, C., HIGGITT, C., CASSAR, M., “Non-destructive characterisation of iron gall ink drawings: Not such a galling problem”, Talanta The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, 2010, n°81, p.412.

3  LISZEWSKA, W., Konserwacja zabytkowych pergaminów. Nowe metody uzupełniania ubytków z użyciem włókien pergaminowych, Warsaw, The Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, 2012, p.365.

4  SOBUCKI, W., Konserwacja papieru. Zagadnienia chemiczne, Warsaw, The Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, 2013, p.76.

5  WAGNER, B., TOMCZUK, U., CZAJKA, A., „Jak można badać wżery atramentowe i co z tych badań potem wynika?”, Sesja naukowa. Konserwacja i badania zabytków rękopiśmiennych. Abstracts.November 20-21 2014, Wrocław, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 2014, p.21-22.

6  WOŹNIAK, M., JARMIŃSKA, D., „Psałterz Floriański pod lupą konserwatorów, Biuletyn Informacyjny Konserwatorów Dzieł Sztuki, 1996, vol 7, n°3-4, p. 9-10.

7  SOBUCKI, W., „Atramenty żelazowo-galusowe”, Ochrona Zabytków, 1996, vol 49, n°3,p.282-283.

8  SOBUCKI, W., op.cit., pp.281-191.

9  FUCHS, R., „Wżery historycznych atramentów i tuszy. Problemy ich restauracji”, Ochrona Zabytków, 1999, n°2, p.172.

10  SOBUCKI, W. (2013), p.80.

11  FUCHS, R., op.cit., p.172.

12  FUCHS, R., op.cit., p.174.

13  BYCZKOWSKA-SZTABA, J., „Graduał benedyktynek lwowskich — zabytek monodii chorałowej. Próba analizy źródłoznawczej”, Kultura książki ziem wschodniego i południowego pogranicza polski (XVI-XX wiek). Paralele i różnice, edited by J. Gwioździk, E. Różycki, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, Katowice, 2004, pp.178-194.

14  All studies will be published in the conference proceedings: SURMAK, A., PRONOBIS-GAJDZIS, M., „Nietypowe zmiany barwne atramentów żelazowo-galusowych wywołane oddziaływaniem niebieskiej farby, na przykładzie Graduału Benedyktynek lwowskich z Krzeszowa”, Wczoraj i dziś konserwacji-restauracji zabytkowych kodeksów. IV Naukowa Konferencja Konserwatorów Papieru i Skóry, Toruń, 23 – 24 października 2014, [in print].

15  The conservation and restoration of Gradual of Lviv Benedictines from Krzeszow was a part of master diploma project performed under the guidance of PhD M. Pronobis-Gajdzis.

16  Therefore the impact of parchment on the formation of iron-gall inks changes was excluded.

17 ROGÓŻ, J.,Zastosowanie technik nieniszczących w badaniach konserwatorskich malowideł ściennych, Toruń, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, 2009.

18  Photos were taken and processed by the author and MA Adam Cupa, Department of Technology and Painting Techniques, Department of Fine Arts, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland.

19  The difference in the appearance of the inks results from their composition – greyish ink probably has more iron (vitriol).

20  The measurements were performed, described and interpreted by the author andPh. D.Professor of Physics Piotr Targowski of Institute of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland.

21 Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT) was constructed by the Team of Interdisciplinary Physics and Computer Science(ZIFI) at the Centre for Modern Interdisciplinary Technologies, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (ICNT). Analysis performed by PhD Magdalena Iwanicka.

22  IWANICKA, M., „Przykłady zastosowania Tomografii Optycznej (OCT) do badań materiałowych i analizy struktury dzieła sztuki”, Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici, Zabytkoznawstwo i Konserwatorstwo XXXVI, Nauki Humanistyczno-Społeczne, 2008, vol 386, p.178.

23  Analysisperformed by PhD Ewa Kaszewska of the Institute of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Poland.

24  HAHN, O., “Analyses of Iron Gall and Carbon Inks by Means of X-ray Fluorescence Analysis: A Non-Destructive Approach in the Field of Archaeometry and Conservation Science”, Restaurator: International Journal for the Preservation of Library and Archival Material, 2010, vol 31, nº1, p.41–64.

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List of illustrations

Title Fig.1 The Gradual of Lviv Benedictines
Caption Photograph  of two decorated pages of The Gradual of Lviv Benedictines
Credits Credits A. Skowroński.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-1.jpg
File image/jpeg, 612k
Title Fig.2 Diagram of colour changes formation within a layer of text
Caption Diagram showing the text and paint layer on the parchment – a colour changes appears when they are in contact
Credits Credits A. Surmak.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-2.jpg
File image/jpeg, 28k
Title Fig.3 Example of colour changes of iron-gall ink in the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines
Caption Colour changes occurring on the initial “B”
Credits Credits A. Surmak.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-3.jpg
File image/jpeg, 124k
Title Fig.4 UV fluorescence of inks on page 77
Caption Comparison of inks in visible light (left) and their UV fluorescence image (right)
Credits Credits A. Cupa.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-4.jpg
File image/jpeg, 128k
Title Fig.5 IR reflectography of inks on page 77
Caption Comparison of inks in visible light (left) and IR reflectography (right). The colour difference between inks on the same page isn’t visible in the first photo. The difference is visible only in IR reflectography.
Credits Credits A. Cupa.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-5.jpg
File image/jpeg, 92k
Title Fig.6 MacroXRF test results of iron-gall inks on page 94 recto
Caption Elemental composition of the text layer. Dominating elements: Fe, Hg, K, Pb.
Credits Credits P. Targowski.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-6.jpg
File image/jpeg, 32k
Title Fig.7 MacroXRF test results of iron-gall inks on page 120 verso
Caption Elemental composition of the text layer. Dominating elements: Fe, Hg, K.
Credits Credits P. Targowski.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-7.jpg
File image/jpeg, 28k
Title Fig.8 MacroXRF test results of iron-gall inks on page 183 verso
Caption Elemental composition of the text layer. Dominating elements: Fe, K, Cu.
Credits Credits P. Targowski.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-8.jpg
File image/jpeg, 32k
Title Fig.9 OCT examination of iron-gall inks
Caption OCT measurement results of iron-gall inks on page 120 verso. The scan shows two different layers: parchment without the text layer is not transparent. In the other side the ink make the transparent layer on the surface of parchment card. Below: Photographies of the examined iron-gall ink text
Credits Credits M. Iwanicka.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-9.jpg
File image/jpeg, 156k
Title Fig.10. LIBS examination of iron-gall ink inscription on page 120 verso
Caption a. iron-gall ink on parchment, b. iron-gall ink on parchment and the smalt picture layer.
Credits Credits E. Kaszewska.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-10.jpg
File image/jpeg, 64k
Title Fig.11 LIBS examination of the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines
Caption Page 120 verso during the examination of iron-gall ink without the colour changes
Credits Credits M. Iwanicka
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-11.jpg
File image/jpeg, 500k
Title Fig.12 Results of LIBS examination
Caption Cu content in iron-gall ink layer on page 120 verso. Differences between non-discoloured ink inscription (red point) and discoloured ink inscription (blue point).
Credits Credits E. Kaszewska.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-12.jpg
File image/jpeg, 44k
Title Fig.13 Results of LIBS examination
Caption Zn content in iron-gall ink layer on page 120 verso. Differences between non-discoloured ink inscription (red point) and discoloured ink inscription (blue point).
Credits Credits E. Kaszewska.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/4909/img-13.jpg
File image/jpeg, 40k
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References

Electronic reference

Aleksandra Surmak, « Study of discoloured iron-gall ink inscriptions – case of the Gradual of Lviv Benedictines from Krzeszow », CeROArt [Online], EGG 5 | 2016, Online since 25 February 2016, connection on 21 August 2017. URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/4909

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About the author

Aleksandra Surmak

Graduate in the field of Conservation and Restoration of Paper and Leather at the Institute for the Study and Conservation of Cultural Monuments, Faculty of Fine Arts at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Laureate to the Leonard Torwirt prize awarded for the finest diploma to graduates of the field of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art.

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Copyright

Licence Creative Commons
CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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