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Research as an integral part of conservation- restoration education

René Larsen et Cecil Krarup Andersen

Résumés

Cet article se concentre sur la nécessité, pour les conservateurs-restaurateurs, d’être équipés d’outils de recherche scientifique, comme des facultés d’observation, dès le début et tout au long de leur formation. Nous le démontrons au travers de deux exemples empruntés à la restauration des parchemins et du doublage à la cire-résine de peintures;  nous montrons que les outils de recherche constituent non seulement une précondition de la recherche scientifique, mais aussi d’un certain nombre d’autres activités du conservateur-restaurateur.

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Introduction

  • 1  Document of Pavia, Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Towards a European profile of the conservato (...)
  • 2  Clarification of Conservation/Restoration Education at University Level or Recognised Equivalent. (...)
  • 3  BUSINESS Plan CEN/TC 346 Conservation of Cultural Heritage, 2015. http://standards.cen.eu/BP/41145 (...)

1From its very start, practical conservation and restoration built on craft traditions supplemented by the knowledge and methods obtained from laboratory research by scientists. However, in the last decades conservation-restoration has developed into an academic scientific discipline of its own. This discipline is defined as an empirical science and characterized by a mixture of theoretical knowledge and practical skills, including the ability to judge in a systematic way on ethical and aesthetic issues1. Moreover, cognitive and systematic analysis, diagnosis and solution of problems should be the basis for practical conservation and restoration skills.2 The establishment of European Standards in conservation of cultural heritage is an important initiative in this development .3

  • 4  Larsen, R., Sommer D.V.P. and Mühlen Axelsson, K.,  "Scientific approach in conservation and resto (...)

2However, the crafts approach to conservation and restoration still dominates in some areas of our field, depending on geographic and cultural differences. The crafts approach may be evident in choice of methods and materials and in the lack of systematic assessment and diagnosis in connection with treatment and storage of cultural heritage objects.4

Academic education and the hypothetical deductive method

3In the European higher education system, the research level of education is clearly defined as PhD education at ETCS level 8.5 However, in all academic research-based education, the teaching and training in the culture and tools of research and scientific problem-solving are integral parts of the educational process and should be introduced from the first lesson of the education programme. Theoretical background as well as culture and tools should be taught to and learned by the students at all levels throughout the learning process until they finally become fundamental parts of the academic competences of the candidates. The level of development of these tools, skills and knowledge of course depends on the level of education (Bachelor, Master or PhD).

  • 6  Popper, K, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Routledge Classics, London and New York 2002, p. 3.
  • 7  Vest, M., vidgarvet læder,H.. "Identifikation, teknologi og nedbrydning. Afgangsopgave, 2. del. Ko (...)

4Scientific method is in general what characterises the work-culture of an academic field and its individual academics. The performance of the scientific method is described by Popper in the following way: “A scientist, whether theorist or experimenter, puts forward statements, or systems of statements, and tests them step by step. In the field of the empirical sciences, more particularly, he constructs hypotheses, or systems of theories, and tests them against experience by observation and experiment.”6 Popper also states that “Any empirical scientific statement can be presented (by describing experimental arrangements, etc.) in such a way that anyone who has learned the relevant technique can test it."7 These statements describe the core of what is called the hypothetical deductive method.

5However, we would like to emphasize that simple observations usually give rise to the hypotheses and theories that are then tested through analyses and experiments. This will be illustrated by the following two cases of our own experience in the fields of parchment degradation and wax-resin lining of canvas paintings.

The parchment gelatinisation case

6For decades, the mixtures of water and ethanol or humidity chambers have been used to relax and flatten parchment documents. Water-based glues made from parchment or starch paste have been used for restoring damaged parchments (an animal skin product). Regarding the latter, several colleagues have observed that parchment restorations, even after a short time, often became yellow in the overlap zone between the original and the restoration material in the form of new parchment. Why did it turn yellow? For years, the answer to this question was that it was the glue or the paste that had yellowed and the above-mentioned treatment practice continued as usual without further questioning.

  • 8  STEP leather Project. Research Report No 1. European Commission, Directorate - General for Science (...)
  • 9  The hydrothermal stability (shrinkage) of collagen fibres can be measured by heating in water usin (...)
  • 10  Larsen, R., Vest, M. and Nielsen, K. "Determination of hydrothermal stability (shrinkage temperatu (...)
  • 11  Larsen, R., "Evaluation of the Correlation between Natural and Artificial Ageing of Vegetable Tann (...)
  • 12  Larsen, R., Vest, M. and Nielsen, K., "Determination of hydrothermal stability (shrinkage temperat (...)
  • 13  Larsen, R., Poulsen, D.V. and Vest, M., The Hydrothermal Stability (Shrinkage Activity) of Parchme (...)

7However, in her master thesis “White tawed leather (another animal skin product). Identification, technology and deterioration”, Vest observed that the microscopic fibres in some of the most deteriorated leathers had lost their typical fibril structure and appeared as glass-like pins.8 Some years previously, Vest was working as a conservation technician in the STEP leather project9 and as part of this work she was measuring the shrinkage temperature10,11of historical vegetable-tanned leathers. In one case, her observation was particularly surprising; instead of shrinking, the most deteriorated leather showed fibres that were transformed into a glue or gelatine-like substance when the temperature in the water reached 40C12,13. At that time many colleagues had experienced that highly degraded leather in some cases shrunk and turned into a hard black substance when treated with moisture (e.g. by use of starch paste by restoration). We wondered whether it was the same phenomena that Vest had observed in the fibres at microscopic level.

  • 14  Larsen, R. et al., "The Use of Complementary and Comparative Analysis in Damage Assessment of Parc (...)
  • 15  Weiner, S., Kustanovich, E.,  Gil-Av and Traub W. "Dead Sea Scroll parchments: unfolding af the co (...)
  • 16  Larsen, R., Poulsen D.V. and Vest M., SDS-PAGE and 2D-Electrophoresis. Reference 2, pp. 133-147.
  • 17  Hassel, B., Examination of Heat Damaged Parchment. Master Thesis, 2005. School of Conservation, Th (...)

8During the EC MAP project Larsen, Poulsen and Vest observed a similar phenomenon, however this time with samples of historical parchment.14 Although the fibre structure appeared intact in the dry state, the parchment dissolved immediately by the addition of water at ambient temperature and the authors put forward the hypothesis that highly degraded parchment fibres may be in a “pre-gelatine” state which is difficult to detect in the dry condition, and that the transformation may take place by excess of moisture at a temperature depending on the degree of deterioration (the more degraded, the lower temperature). The project showed the relation between chemical and physical deterioration from the microscopic down to the molecular level15and found evidence that highly degraded parchment collagen contains a molecular weight distribution similar to that of gelatine.16 However, although Weiner et al.17had reported spontaneous transformation of heavily damaged Dead Sea Scroll parchments into gelatine as early as 1980, this did not reach and influence the practice or reflections of the conservators-restorers in the parchment field.

  • 18  Larsen, R., et al.: "Damage assessment of parchment: Complexity and relations at different structu (...)
  • 19  Improved damage    assessment of parchment (IDAP). Assessment, data collection and sharing of know (...)
  • 20  Mühlen Axelsson, K., Larsen, R.  and Sommer, D.V.P., "Dimensional studies of specific microscopic (...)
  • 21  Badea, E., Sommer, DBP, Mühlen Axelsson, K., Larsen, R., Kurysheva, A., Miu, L., Della Gatta, G., (...)
  • 22  Larsen, R., Sommer, D.V.P. , Mühlen Axelsson,  K.   and Frank, D., "Transformation of Collagen int (...)
  • 23  Mühlen Axelsson, K.,Oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of collagen in parchment.PhD Thesis. Roya (...)
  • 24  Bjarnhof, S. 1981. Signe Rønne, 1896-1980 (draft for obituary). Copenhagen: National Gallery of De (...)

9Later on, in her thesis work “Examination of Heat Damaged Parchment”, Hassel discovered that historical and experimental heat damaged parchment were transformed into a gelatine substance by contact with water at ambient temperature when they had reached a high level of degradation.18 She also observed gelatinisation of the surface fibres of the above mentioned parchment samples when they were exposed to high humidity in a humidity chamber in connection with experiments of relaxation and flattening. These and many other similar observations urged us to the formulation of the IDAP project in which the research teams consisting of conservator-restorers and natural scientists developed a programme of well-defined visual diagnostic methods for condition assessment of parchment19,20. The project revealed new details of the different stages" of the breakdown evolution, the chemical and "physical mechanisms causing it and defined the characteristic features of the various stages of deterioration. The visual macro and micro observations during the project and other succeeding projects confirmed that the gelatinisation phenomenon of parchment takes place at all structural levels. They furthermore confirmed that conservation and restoration treatments, as well as humid and warm storage, may initiate and accelerate the degradation process considerably and that even a slight gelatine formation on the surface of parchment may cause an irreversible loss of text and paint layers,21 , 22,23,24. Despite the publication and communication of the research results and relatively simple diagnostic methods, these were and are still ignored by many conservators-restorers.                   

The wax-resin lining case

  • 25  Andersen, C. K., Lined canvas paintings. Mechanical properties and structural response to fluctuat (...)
  • 26  Condition report from Statens Museum for Kunst – the National Gallery of Denmark, 1996.
  • 27  Condition report from Statens Museum for Kunst – the National Gallery of Denmark, 2001.

10Another example is the wax-resin lining technique for treating canvas paintings that was introduced in Denmark around the time of the First World War.25  Here, wax-resin mixture was initially used to impregnate glue-paste linings in order to protect them from high humidity but the mixture was soon used on unlined paintings as well and also became a very popular adhesive for lining. The wax-resin lining technique was considered especially well-suited for moisture-sensitive nineteenth century canvas paintings and a large number of Danish Golden Age paintings were wax-resin lined.26 Gradually, during the 1950’s and the 1960’s, more and more paintings were lined with wax-resin and in the 1960s, when the method peaked in Denmark; it was normal routine that the conservators-restorers were heating the wax-resin pot every morning while drinking their morning coffee. The treatments were done with the best intentions in order to protect the most valuable paintings – especially if they were to travel to another site for new exhibitions.27

  • 28  Young & Ackroyd, National Gallery Technical Bulletin 2001.
  • 29  Tassinari, E. (1974). Characterization of lining canvases. Conference on comparative lining techni (...)

11After some decades the conservator-restorers began to observe changes on some of the wax-resin lined paintings coming back from external exhibitions. It might be notes such as: “Changes in condition: Attention The material bulges very strongly throughout the surface - very rigid bulge formation otherwise no change in condition”.28 As time went by more observations were made and questions concerning the causes for the physical deformation of the paintings were asked and  Hypotheses were based on qualified guesses rather than scientific analysis and experiments: Technology and condition description: There are noted bulges over the entire picture surface. The bulges occurred during lending in connection with the exhibition. The bulges are related to wax-resin lining and climate change at the exhibition venue”.29

  • 30  Hedley, G., "Relative Humidity and the stress/strain response of canvas paintings: uniaxial measur (...)
  • 31  Andersen, C. K., Lined canvas paintings. Mechanical properties and structural response to fluctuat (...)
  • 32  See also: Andersen, C. K., et al.: "With the best intentions. Wax-resin lining of Danish Golden Ag (...)

12Wax-resin has been expected to prevent a painting from responding to changing relative humidity (RH), since the complete painting structure was embedded in the hydrophobic adhesive, but the reported results on this topic were inconclusive. Using biaxial tests, Young and Ackroyd found that wax-resin linings prevented test paintings from responding to high humidity if there was a thorough impregnation and a thick layer on the back of the lining canvas.30 However, the authors also tested a lining canvas impregnated with wax-resin and found increased force at high RH levels. The last result confirmed the work by Tassinari. He came to the conclusion that there was significant high RH shrinkage in wax-resin impregnated hemp canvas, whereas there was little shrinkage at low humidity levels.31 Hedley too found some response in a primed canvas impregnated with wax and concluded that the wax treatment did not prevent high RH response; it just took longer for the specimen to respond.32

13In her PhD project, Andersen33 could verify the slow absorption of moisture in wax-resin lined paintings and furthermore found a higher degree of contraction forces in the wax-resin lined painting than the corresponding unlined paintings with RH above 60%. She was furthermore able to come up with a model that explained the contraction forces, which caused permanent deformation and lead to formation of bulges.34

What have we learned from the cases?

14The two above examples show that, the experiences and observations of conservators-restorers in professional practise as well as the results of the researchers are essential in order to reach the best possible solutions to conservation problems and to achieve maximum information in the continuous analyses, experiments and clarifications of these. With this in mind, it is worth considering the statement of Popper: “An assertion which owing to its logical form is not testable can at best operate, within science, as stimulus: it can suggest a problem.”33 However, to focus and direct research to address specific problems it is important that the conservator-restorer is able to translate their observations to hypotheses, which may be rigorously tested in a research project. This is clearly defined in another statement of Popper: “Any empirical scientific statement can be presented in such a way that anyone who has learned the relevant technique can test it”.33 The latter tells us that more systematic observations based on scientific methods, and using tools including formulation and communication, might have led to faster elucidation of and solutions to the problems of the parchment gelatinisation and wax-resin lined paintings.

15Indeed, hypotheses were stated in the parchment case e.g. that “it was the glue or paste used for the restoring that yellowed” and in cases with yellow parchments that “it was gelatinised on purpose by the parchment maker by pouring boiling water on the finished parchment to achieve the yellow colour”.

16However, both hypotheses could easily have been tested. In the first case it would probably have led to the conclusion that glue and paste do become yellow over time, but testing this may also have revealed that the same thing is true for parchment which is introduced to moisture or to high RH. In the case of the effect of pouring boiling water on newly produced parchment it would have been simple to falsify the hypothesis as gelatinisation of new parchment takes hours of boiling.

17Scientific evidence for the transformation of parchment into gelatine was given and the hypothesis that moisture treatment would initiate and accelerate the process was supported by observation studies. However, this evidence was not considered by conservators-restorers until simple visual methods of measurements and diagnosis made it possible for them to observe and confirm this experimentally by themselves. The usual way of dissemination through written publication and orally at conferences had only a minor effect.  In fact, we found that the existing research results, scientific observations and relatively simple diagnostic methods were not implemented by some conservators-restorers until these were communicated and trained in professional development courses.

  • 35  Popper, K., reference 6, p. 79-80.

18This example of slow dissemination of results through to practising conservators-restorers may be caused by a preference on the conservator’s part to consult peers first for advice on conservation issues and only as a second option to consult research literature. This tendency has been reported by Clemmensen in Denmark (Clemmensen, Pia: “Konservatorers informationspraksis i et praksisteoretisk perspektiv”, Master thesis, Royal School of Library and Information Science, University of Copenhagen, 2012),35 but could very well be a transnational trend. Thus, Clemmensen reported that the conservators in her questionnaires often did not expect research literature to be directly relevant to their individual cases of practical conservation-restoration.

19In the wax resin lined paintings case, the clarification of the problem was delayed for years because the experiments performed were not consistently including time as a factorand because confidence in the protective performance of this treatment was enormous amongst conservators and researchers. Signs of contradictive behaviour in paintings were ignored because of this confidence. In this case, the clear hypothesis that “the bulges are related to wax-resin lining and climate change at the exhibition venue” would have been easy to test in comparative studies of the behavior of wax-resin lined paintings in exhibitions including the relative humidity and time as parameters. The hypothesis that the treatment keeps paintings unaffected by humidity changes provided that the painting is thoroughly impregnated30 would also be simple to test in order to determine whether time and relative humidity are in fact the causative factors.  

20These, and probably many similar examples, certainly show that the inclusion of experience, knowledge and observations of conservator-restorers is essential to obtain optimal solutions to all conservational activities, be it active or preventive conservation, basic research, experiments or development of new methods and materials for conservation and restoration. On the other hand, in order to continuously provide the best possible protection and care for our cultural heritage, conservators-restorers must keep themselves continually updated on relevant research and implement new methods and knowledge on a critical scientific basis. This requires a strong culture of scientific thinking and behaviour and the skills to practice accordingly within the conservation-restoration profession in general and of the individual conservator-restorer in particular. A widespread implementation of such a culture in the profession can only be achieved by teaching and training the students in scientific observation methods and research skills, and the translation of practical problems into testable hypotheses, throughout their education from undergraduate to PhD level.

Observation

21According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary observation is defined as: “the act of watching somebody/something carefully for a period of time, especially to learn something”.34 However, we should also have in mind the following words of Popper: “I readily admit that only observation can give us ‘knowledge concerning facts’, and that we can (as Hahn says) ‘become aware of facts only by observation’. But this awareness, this knowledge of ours, does not justify or establish the truth of any statement. I do not believe, therefore, that the question which epistemology must ask is, ‘. . . on what does our knowledge rest?. . . or more exactly, how can I, having had the experience S, justify my description of it, and defend it against doubt? This will not do, even if we change the term ‘experience’ into ‘protocol sentence’. In my view, what epistemology has to ask is, rather: how do we test scientific statements by their consequences? And what kind of consequences can we select for this purpose if they in their turn are to be inter-subjectively testable?”35

22Or, to make it simpler, the questions arising from our observations have to be put in a form that will fulfil the following definition: “when qualitative research is grounded in a subjective or inter-subjective epistemology, it is critical that the researcher explicate his or her position so that the reader understands the full context of the study.”36 This is the first condition for setting up testable hypotheses that may form the basis for experiments, research and development.

23However, observation needs senses, and of the five senses we are equipped with, the conservator – restorer needs to make use of the four: hearing (e.g. pests, water leaks), sight (e.g. material appearances, physical disintegration, and physical environment), smell (e.g. chemical breakdown, microbiological attack, insects and pests) and touch (e.g. brittleness, flexibility, hardness and softness). The observation skill of the student is developed through a systematic training of the sub-skills, which “include collecting evidence, identifying similarities and differences, classifying, measuring, and identifying relevant observations.”37This includes systematic introduction to terms of classification of e.g. materials and their appearance, behaviour and degradation in its different stages as well as the necessary equipment and apparatus for the detection and measurement of these.

Teaching observation and observation skills

24The teaching and learning of scientific observation culture and observation skills requires an active effort and practical training of the students in combination with the learning of the associated relevant theory. In addition, the teaching and exercising of observation should take place in a context that includes not only the necessary documentation of condition before and after treatment, but also provides the data for future development and research. In all cases, it requires that the methods, equipment and the results are documented and communicated in a form that can, as stated above, be understood and replicated by other relevant professionals. This is also critical when using other professional expertise, for example for chemical analyses of materials. In order to communicate one’s analytical needs and to understand what is reported back on these, the conservator must understand scientific language and reasoning. Moreover, to make the learning of observation and observation sub-skills meaningful, it should be combined with the theory of the underlying biological, chemical and physical mechanisms as well as any aesthetical and ethical issues that may be related to the observed phenomena. This has the advantage that it also makes the theoretical background more meaningful and eases the student’s learning and understanding of observations.

25The prerequisite for maintaining a high quality of scientific observation skills in professional conservation-restoration practice is that the conservators-restorers regularly evaluate their methods critically and participate in relevant and specifically targeted continuing professional development education in the same37. According to our experience, the development of observation skills and methods is most successful in small groups, where the participants can learn from each other and exchange experiences and useful ideas, and that the time necessary to carry out the mentioned activities is given. As we experienced during the IDAP project, the workshop format is particularly effective when it comes to formulate and set up new observation methods and vocabulary as well as to evaluate and develop these. Moreover, we found that formulating and defining our observations in writing improved and sharpened our observation skills.

26After the IDAP project had finished, several workshops were held around Europe, in most cases as continuing professional development courses. Here, and during the IDAP project, the participants were always a mix of students and professional conservators-restorers as well as people from other relevant academic fields. The mixture of academic background and experience increased the inspiration and creativity of the group and the individual participants and the status as CPD (continuing professional development) courses gave more opportunities to get financial support from the participants’ institutions and national bodies. Another obvious source for such activities is the EC Erasmus programmes for staff and students.

Contributing to research

27A systematic use of standardised observations in the daily professional practice of our colleagues could form a significant contribution to research and development in our field. Their systemised observations and experiences would generate an invaluable and enormous source of informative data that, relatively easy and without the need for large resources, could be subjected to statistical analysis. This would ensure improved and quicker access to information about e.g. the short and long term effects of active and preventive conservation and restoration actions as well as newly discovered knowledge on material behaviour, characteristics and deterioration. Today where most observations are being recorded in a digital form, it only needs a clear definition of the terms used to report these and their input into a spreadsheet (e.g. Excel) and the data is easy transformable and can be shared with other colleagues around the world.

28The optimal situation for this would of course be to use international standardised observation methods (equipment, testing methods etc.) and terms (for material characteristics, condition and damage levels etc.). The European Standards (CEN) within cultural heritage is an obvious forum for this development. However, even self-made standards are useful for a start, provided that they are properly defined. If this is the case, they may form the basis for the development of a more universal standard.

Conclusions

29We have demonstrated the necessity of conservators-restorers to be equipped with scientific observation skills, and to ensure throughout their education that this will become a fundamental part of their academic routine practice as professionals. This was demonstrated by our experiences within parchment conservation and wax-resin lining of canvas paintings, showing that professional communication on observation and research results between practitioners and researchers is necessary to ensure faster and more optimal solutions to protect our cultural heritage. Moreover, our experiences are supported by a survey showing that conservators-restores often consulted colleagues for advice on conservation issues initially, and only consulted research literature as a second option.

30It is also our experience that the teaching and learning of scientific observation culture and observation skills requires an active effort, and involves practical training of the students in small groups in combination with the learning of the associated relevant theory. The teaching and training should include the necessary documentation of condition before and after treatment, and data for future development and research, as well as documentation and communication of the methods, equipment and the results in a form that can be understood and replicated by all other relevant professionals.

31Finally, we urge that conservators-restorers regularly evaluate their methods critically and participate in relevant and specifically targeted Continuing Professional Development educational programmes to maintain a high quality of scientific observation skills and academic culture in professional conservation-restoration practice. We are convinced that the practice of a high-quality academic culture in conservation-restoration, along with improved scientific communication between practitioners and researchers, will produce invaluable data and knowledge that, relatively easily and without great cost, could form the basis for research and development for the benefit of all parties, and not least the preservation of our cultural heritage.

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Notes

1  Document of Pavia, Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Towards a European profile of the conservator/restorer, European summit, Pavia, 18-22 October 1997. www.episcon.scienze.unibo.it/episcon/bologna-document

2  Clarification of Conservation/Restoration Education at University Level or Recognised Equivalent. ENCoRE 3rd General Assembly 19 - 22 June 2001, Munich, Germany, pp. 3-4. www.encore-edu.org

3  BUSINESS Plan CEN/TC 346 Conservation of Cultural Heritage, 2015. http://standards.cen.eu/BP/411453.pdf

4  Larsen, R., Sommer D.V.P. and Mühlen Axelsson, K.,  "Scientific approach in conservation and restoration of leather and parchment objects in archives and libraries, in New approaches to to book and paper conservation-restoration, ed. Engel, P., Verlag Berger, Horn/Wien, 2011, p. 239-258.

5  ECTS Users’ Guide 2015, pp. 19-28.
http://ec.europa.eu/education/library/publications/2015/ects-users-guide_en.pdf

6  Popper, K, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Routledge Classics, London and New York 2002, p. 3.

and p.81.

7  Vest, M., vidgarvet læder,H.. "Identifikation, teknologi og nedbrydning. Afgangsopgave, 2. del. Konservatorskolen", Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi, 1996. (In Danish).

8  STEP leather Project. Research Report No 1. European Commission, Directorate - General for Science, Research and Development. Ed. René Larsen. The Royal Danish Academy of fine Arts, School of Conservation, Denmark, 1994, ISBN 87-89730-01-1.

9  The hydrothermal stability (shrinkage) of collagen fibres can be measured by heating in water using e.g. the simple Micro Hot Table technique (MHT) or Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Raw hide shrinks at around 65C, new vegetable tanned leather between 70 and 90 and new parchment around 55C. The shrinkage temperature drops by deterioration and can thus be used as a measure of the degree of deterioration.

10  Larsen, R., Vest, M. and Nielsen, K. "Determination of hydrothermal stability (shrinkage temperature) of historical leathers by the micro hot table technique", Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists 77, (1993), p. 151 - 156.

11  Larsen, R., "Evaluation of the Correlation between Natural and Artificial Ageing of Vegetable Tanned Leather and Determination of Parameters for Standardization of an Artificial Ageing Method: STEP Leather Project." European Cultural Heritage Newsletter on Research 7, 1 - 4 (1993), p. 19-26.

12  Larsen, R., Vest, M. and Nielsen, K., "Determination of hydrothermal stability (shrinkage temperature)", Reference 9, p. 151-164.

13  Larsen, R., Poulsen, D.V. and Vest, M., The Hydrothermal Stability (Shrinkage Activity) of Parchment measured by the Micro Hot Table Method (MHT). Microanalysis of Parchment. Ed. René Larsen. Archetype Publications, London 2002, p. 55-62.

14  Larsen, R. et al., "The Use of Complementary and Comparative Analysis in Damage Assessment of Parchment". Reference 13,  p. 165-180.

15  Weiner, S., Kustanovich, E.,  Gil-Av and Traub W. "Dead Sea Scroll parchments: unfolding af the collagen molecules and racemisation of aspartic acid", Nature 287, 1980, p. 820.

16  Larsen, R., Poulsen D.V. and Vest M., SDS-PAGE and 2D-Electrophoresis. Reference 2, pp. 133-147.

17  Hassel, B., Examination of Heat Damaged Parchment. Master Thesis, 2005. School of Conservation, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, In Cooperation with Studiengang Restaurierung und Konservierung von Graphik, Archiv- und Bibliotheksgut, Staatliche Akademie der Bildende Künste, Stuttgart.

18  Larsen, R., et al.: "Damage assessment of parchment: Complexity and relations at different structural levels". ICOM-CC. 14th Triennial Meeting, The Hague. 12-16 September 2005 (pre-prints). Volume I, p. 199-208.

19  Improved damage    assessment of parchment (IDAP). Assessment, data collection and sharing of knowledge. Ed. René Larsen. European Commission, Research Report no. 18, European Communities, 2007.

20  Mühlen Axelsson, K., Larsen, R.  and Sommer, D.V.P., "Dimensional studies of specific microscopic fibre structures in deteriorated parchment before and during shrinkage". Journal of Cultural Heritage 13, 2012, p. 128-136.

21  Badea, E., Sommer, DBP, Mühlen Axelsson, K., Larsen, R., Kurysheva, A., Miu, L., Della Gatta, G., "Damage ranking of historic parchment: from microscopic studies of fibre structure to collagen denaturation assessment by micro DSC", e-PS, 9, 2012, p. 97-109.

22  Larsen, R., Sommer, D.V.P. , Mühlen Axelsson,  K.   and Frank, D., "Transformation of Collagen into Gelatine in Historical Leather and Parchment Caused by Natural Deterioration and Moist Treatment". ICOM-CC, Leather and related materials working group. Interim meeting, August 29-31, Offenbach am Main, Germany. 2013, p. 61-68.

23  Mühlen Axelsson, K.,Oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of collagen in parchment.PhD Thesis. Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools for Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Conservation, PhD thesis, 2014.

24  Bjarnhof, S. 1981. Signe Rønne, 1896-1980 (draft for obituary). Copenhagen: National Gallery of Denmark, conservation archive.

25  Andersen, C. K., Lined canvas paintings. Mechanical properties and structural response to fluctuating relative humidity, exemplified by the collection of Danish Golden Age paintings at Statens Museum for Kunst (SMK). School of conservation. Unpublished, KADK Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools for Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Conservation, PhD theisis, 2013 p. 18. Ibid. p. 17-18.

26  Condition report from Statens Museum for Kunst – the National Gallery of Denmark, 1996.

27  Condition report from Statens Museum for Kunst – the National Gallery of Denmark, 2001.

28  Young & Ackroyd, National Gallery Technical Bulletin 2001.

29  Tassinari, E. (1974). Characterization of lining canvases. Conference on comparative lining techniques, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, 1974.

30  Hedley, G., "Relative Humidity and the stress/strain response of canvas paintings: uniaxial measurements of naturally aged samples." Studies in conservation 33(3): 133-148. 1988

31  Andersen, C. K., Lined canvas paintings. Mechanical properties and structural response to fluctuating relative humidity, exemplified by the collection of Danish Golden Age paintings at Statens Museum for Kunst (SMK). School of conservation. Unpublished, KADK Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools for Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Conservation. PhD thesis, 2013.

32  See also: Andersen, C. K., et al.: "With the best intentions. Wax-resin lining of Danish Golden Age paintings (early 19th century) on canvas and changed response to RH". ICOM-CC 14th Triennial Conference, Melbourne, Australia, International Council of Museums, 2014.

33  Popper, K., reference 6, p. 81.

34  Observation. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary.
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/learner/observation

35  Popper, K., reference 6, p. 79-80.

36  Intersubjective. Oxford Learner’s.
www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/intersubjective

37  Process Skills: Definitions and Examples. Institute for Inquiry.
www.exploratorium.edu/ifi

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René Larsen et Cecil Krarup Andersen, « Research as an integral part of conservation- restoration education  », CeROArt [En ligne], HS | 2017, mis en ligne le 16 juin 2017, consulté le 20 septembre 2017. URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/5029

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Auteurs

René Larsen

René Larsen has a background as a Professional Bookbinder, MS in Conservation-Restoration, PHD.  He is former Teacher/Scientist and Rector School of Conservation, the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from. Former Head of School and Associate Professor, School of Conservation, the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts School of Architecture, Design and Conservation. He is Co-founder and former Chairman the Board of ENCoRE.

Cecil Krarup Andersen

Cecil Krarup Andersen is an assistant professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation (KADK) since 2014. Cecil graduated from the School of Conservation in 2005 and received her PhD in the structure and mechanics of lined paintings in 2013 from KADK in collaboration with Centre for Art Technological Studies (CATS) and the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC (MCI).

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Licence Creative Commons
CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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