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From Roger Marijnissen’s Historical overview to the present day: some thoughts concerning half a century’s development of Conservation History as a discipline

Mireille te Marvelde

Résumés

En 1965 Roger Marijnissena rédigea une synthèse historique quant à  la profession de conservation-restauration. Cette recherche établissait une première chronologie et associait les fondements théoriques de la profession à une approche historique de la pratique de conservation. Cet écrit a formé un point de départ pour de futures recherches. Le présent article donne une brève synthèse des développements dans l'étude de l'histoire de la conservation, depuis 1965. Il démontre que cette étude est devenue une science historique véritable, qui se développe constamment et s'ouvre à la possibilité non seulement d'élargir la connaissance du passé, mais aussi de l'examiner de manière permanente, dans des perspectives nouvelles et différentes.

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I am pleased to write for the Mélanges in tribute to Roger Marijnissen, since in my personal career his Historical overview always played a role. It was one of the first texts on conservation that I read, when in 1989 I decided on a conservation historical subject for my Master’s thesis in Art History at the University of Amsterdam: The 18th-century Dutch Restorer of Paintings, Jan van Dijk. Since then, I have become a conservator myself and have published regularly on conservation historical subjects. For almost all my publications Roger Marijnissen’s Historical overview was helpful.

I am a Dutch paintings conservator, and I wrote this brief overview from my personal viewpoint, therefore the focus is on paintings, and several examples concern Dutch research as a consequence. For every aspect of my overview I could only give a few examples. However, as my overview shows as well, I am well aware of the enormous international activity in this area, and I regret that it was not possible to acknowledge all of the people who did and are doing very interesting and important work in this field.

I would like to thank Jeroen Fokkenrood, Joyce Hill Stoner, Muriel Verbeeck-Boutin, Ernst van de Wetering and Cornelia Weyer for valuable comments and additional information and for  translating and editing this paper.

Introduction

  • 1  Marijnissen, R. H. (1965). Het beschadigde kunstwerk. Een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden van een (...)
  • 2  Marijnissen, 1965, 1; Stübel, M. (1926) Gemälderestaurationen im 18. Jahrhundert. In Der Cicerone, (...)

1In the chapter Historical overview1 in his 1965 dissertation, Roger Marijnissen referred to Moritz Stübels’s 1926 call for the need to write a History of Conservation. According to Stübel -who wrote two articles about the subject- this History of Conservation would be of the greatest importance for Art History, since art historians should be able to form an idea of the original condition of works of art when they examine these works. He considered it an important task for art historians to undertake the effort to build a “Corpus restaurationum”. However, he stressed the fact that writing such an historical overview would be very difficult. As Stübel put it, conservation history is a “...true historical discipline, that reports only fragmentarily of fragments”.2

  • 3  Marijnissen referred on the first page of his overview to the publication of L’atelier du temps. E (...)

2Marijnissen, in 1965, put himself to the task to venture an attempt to establish a main chronology. In his dissertation he described the reasons that make the construction of an historical overview of the field of conservation so difficult, explaining that after Stübels’s call no one took the initiative to do so: the available information was not only fragmentary, the amount of ‘fragments’ was extremely limited. There was a lack of written sources which was a consequence of the fact that the profession had long been considered a craft. The attention was focused on the visual result of a treatment, not on the material history and future of an art work. Besides, materials and techniques were not described in detail, since workshops kept their workshop practices secret, especially because of the experimental character of the activities. Marijnissen referred to an important aspect when explaining the difficulties in writing an historical overview: one can write a History of Conservation only if one discusses the theoretical foundations of the field. And it is exactly the professional attitude that was barely described in the historical sources and the literature.3

3Aware of all these difficulties, Marijnissen in 1965 pointed out in his historical overview repeatedly that the field at that time was virtually unexplored so his description therefore could be only superficial and somewhat vague. However, he still managed to set out clearly the main chronologies, both on the theoretical and technical developments, and he placed these developments into a larger historical context. He was able to do this by collecting a huge amount of segmented information from an impressive variety of archival sources, early publications, and more recent literature from different European countries, and then interpreted it from different historical perspectives and disciplines; he connected these fragments of information with each other in a logical way. For example, he described the impact of the rise of historical consciousness on the maintenance of art and the development of the conservation profession, which was a direct result of social developments in the second half of the eighteenth century. He incorporated knowledge about cultural, social, and political movements like Classicism, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution and the rise of Classical Archaeology, as frames for his interpretations.

4Marijnissen, during his investigation, suspected that the information actually was not so limited, and that there would still be much to find. However, he supposed that the information would not be easy to obtain and the research could not be done systematically, given the nature of the sources. According to him, the reason for the hitherto lack of an historical overview was due mainly to a lack of interest among historians and art historians. Therefore, his work was instant clarion call for further research by laying the foundation and underlining the importance of the research. Marijnissen stressed the importance for the insight that one can thus obtain in understanding changes and aging of original materials which can then provide a basis for improving the treatment methods.

5Since Marijnissen’s publication, an impressive amount of research has been done into the theory and History of Conservation. In the following essay, I will summarize his Historical overview and indicate its importance. I will then provide a rough outline of the developments that have since taken place. In this short article, it is obviously not possible to write the History of the Study of Conservation History, but I will refer to a number of developments and key moments from the past 50 years, which I think make clear that the investigation into the history of the conservation profession itself has now developed into a professional historical discipline, in which much activity has been undertaken.

Historical overview of Marijnissen and its importance

  • 4  Marijnissen, 1965, 6.
  • 5  Marijnissen, 1965, 10.

6Marijnissen himself called his Historical overview “vague, very superficial and perhaps somewhat biased” because of the shortage of material and the lack of a coherent historical context into which the fragments of information could be fitted.4 On the basis of the data he collected from historical sources and literature, he tried to find out where in history the beginning of the conservation profession could be found. He also immediately established the caveat that a concrete ‘beginning’ can’t exist, because in fact it concerns a sense of responsibility for cultural heritage, which developed only slowly and not in the same way universally. His aim was to “...point out where and when the symptoms of this responsibility began to show”.5 Therefore, Marijnissen examined his material with a focus on the changes in appreciation of works of art over the course of time. His sources were very different in nature. He discussed the content mostly chronologically, in the sections “Before the 18th century”, “The 18th century” and “The 19th century”. But, where it was more logical he discussed his sources by conservation techniques, or by country, or by using some of the famous persons of the time, or on the basis of the impact of major political and social changes, including the major European art theft under Napoleon and the rapid rise of the Museum as an institution. Usually it is about paintings, because that is what had been written about most often historically, but sometimes he provided an example based on a series of carpets, or a classical sculpture. Although aspects of the cleaning of paintings were addressed occasionally Marijnissen discussed the topic “The cleaning of paintings” in a separate section that followed his discussion of the 19th century. Within that chapter he chose again a chronology (he discussed recipes and methods from 1620 to 1873), in which he went deeper into specific topics such as the cleaning controversies and the regeneration method of Max von Pettenkofer. The impact of this method he discussed by country, but discussed only those countries about which he had information.

7Depending on the available material he sometimes provided extensive detail, while other topics were left entirely untouched. To give an example, in the chapter on the 18th century, he paid prolonged attention to the cradling and transfer of paintings in Paris, but other aspects of conservation treatments remained undiscussed. The discussion of the sources in the chapter on the 19th century on the other hand, was largely focused on various conservation techniques (‘relining’, ‘consolidation’, ‘cradling’, ‘transfer’, ‘filling’, and ‘retouching’). Special attention was always paid to the underlying principles from which works of art were dealt with in the relevant eras, distilled from the examples he had previously discussed, seen in their historical context, whenever available.

  • 6  Marijnissen, 1965, 15-27.
  • 7  Marijnissen, 1965, 59-62.

8Despite the highly fragmented nature of the text, the nature of the sources, the unbalanced nature of the information, but also the -forced- difference in degree of attention Marijnissen gave to various aspects, the reader still is not under the impression that the text is “vague, very superficial and perhaps slightly biased”. There is definitely a clear chronology for the argument, a clear question and search, and there are clear conclusions, of which the main idea today still forms the starting points for our consideration of the history of the field: that the first signs of the roots of it are located in the middle of the 18th century, when people concentrated on the question of the original appearance of artworks, from a respectful attitude, trying not to adapt them to the taste of the time. Only towards the end of the 18th and early 19th century the need to preserve cultural objects really took shape, thereby making conservation increasingly an issue. This is, according to Marijnissen, a result of the historical consciousness that came from the Enlightenment and parallel other developments in intellectual history.6 Furthermore, Marijnissen concluded that in the 19th century, more and more theoretical foundations were formulated, but that there seemed to be little relation to the practice. The various cleaning controversies seem to have led to more restraint, reflection, and discussion and thus contributed positively to the professionalization of the practice of conservation. Another important conclusion by Marijnissen which is still true today, is the fact that respect for the artwork in its material manifestation only emerged at the end of the 19th century, when scientific research increasingly played a role in conservation.7

9The importance of the work by Marijnissen lies in the fact that he was the first author who brought together an impressive amount of conservation historical material, which he then addressed from a critical attitude in an historical perspective and with which he tried to map out the origins, principles, developments, and the cultural and historical background of the conservation profession, as complete as was possible at that time. The collected material is also extremely informative concerning historical materials and techniques in the different European countries and institutes. He also provided detailed information about specific individuals who played an important role and specific historic restorations to known artworks.

10Broadly speaking, his interpretations and conclusions are still valid. Marijnissen was clear about his approach, indicating the difficulties to be expected, was reticent about the ‘certainty’ of his interpretations, explained what issues such research was facing, but also indicated through which avenues this research was still possible. Therefore his Historical overview formed a framework on which to build upon in various directions and in different ways.

An historical overview of  the study of Conservation History

  • 8  Bredius, A. (1910). Drie Schilders-restaurators in 1685 te Amsterdam. In Oud Holland 28, 189-191.
  • 9  O.a. Bredius, A. (1930). Archiefsprokkelingen. Hoe er vroeger reeds gecopieerd en gerestaureerd we (...)

11On the question of where in history the origins of conservation can be found, Marijnissen concluded that a concrete starting point doesn’t exist. The same is true for the beginning of the study into the History of Conservation. In 1926 Stübel wrote his article on conservation in 18th-century Europe, especially in Germany, and made the above-mentioned call for writing a complete overview of Conservation History in Europe. Well before Stübel, in the 19th century, when interest in history increased significantly and conservators began to have an eye for the material history of a work of art, there are probably many activities to be found that demonstrate interest for the historical development of the field. In any case, from the beginning of the 20th century, when more and more (international) literature appeared, much evidence for this interest can be found. For example, the art historian and Rembrandt expert Abraham Bredius was engaged for a long time in searching for documents in the Amsterdam city archives for information on previous conservation treatments. In 1910 he published in the art-historical journal Oud Holland a short article titled Three painter-restorers in 1685 in Amsterdam.8 And for some time in the same journal he had a section in which he published the fragments of information he had found under the title Archival gatherings. How people in Earlier Times already copied and restored.9

  • 10  Schendel, A. van, and Mertens, H.H. (1947). De restauraties van Rembrandt’s Nachtwacht. In Oud Hol (...)

12In 1947 for the first time -at the occasion of yet another conservation treatment- a comprehensive study of the conservation history of Rembrandt's Night Watch was published, according to records dating from 1664 to 1947. It was also, perhaps for the first time ever, an attempt to interpret the historic conservation terminology systematically.10 

  • 11  Brommelle, N. (1956). Material for a History of Conservation. In Studies in Conservation II, 176-1 (...)

13Around the middle of the 20th century, the need grew for more historical information on the field; this is evidenced by numerous publications, such as the article Materials for a History of Conservation. The 1850 and 1853 reports on the National Gallery by Norman Brommelle.11

14These are but a few of many examples that illustrate the growth of interest for the history of the conservation profession.

15As Marijnissen rightly suspected, there would prove to be much more to find in the future on Conservation History than initially was considered possible. The situation may be similar for early information on the interest in and study of the History of Conservation, even before Marijnissen and Stübel.

  • 12  Grevenstein-Kruse, A. van (2005). Restauratie: Geschiedenis en Vooruitgang. Nijmegen University Pr (...)
  • 13  Coremans, P. (1953). L’Agneau Mystique au Laboratoire: examen et traitement. De Sikkel, Antwerp.

16For now, it seems that a more general interest in the history of the conservation profession emerged only in the 1970s, as a result of various professional developments in the previous decades.The period from the early 20th century to the 1970s had witnessed an increase in the development of theoretical treatises, a rapid increase in professional literature, the establishment of professional associations, the development of charters and codes, and the organisation of the first congresses. Also the development of new materials and techniques had increased enormously, and an awareness of the need for the establishment of training programs had arisen, for which all kinds of initiatives were launched.12Additionally major conservation projects, such as that of the Mystic Lamb by the Van Eyck brothers in the KIK/IRPA (Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage) in Brussels, led by Paul Coremans, had made clear the importance of an interdisciplinary collaboration between art historians, scientists and conservators.13

An important moment in the history of the conservation field

  • 14  De papers of the conference were not published before 2003: Villers, C., ed. (2003). Lining Painti (...)
  • 15  Villers, 2003, Introduction.

17An important moment in this professional development of the conservation field was The Conference on Comparative Lining Techniques that took place in 1974 at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, England.14 After years of technical developments, at this conference the different methods and the underlying principles of structural treatment of paintings on canvas were demonstrated and discussed. It included traditional methods based on empirical experience, as well as methods based on newly developed scientific research methods. One of the conclusions of the conference was that traditional lining methods, especially the wax-resin lining method, in the past had caused dramatic changes to paintings. It was also concluded that on a large scale, and often without real need, relining had been carried out systematically; a call was made for restraint until the time that better and safer methods would be developed. In the discussions, notions of minimal intervention and reversibility played an important role. The insights gained during this conference reinforced the growing awareness that a work of art is in many aspects a rich source of information about itself. It is a complex object that contains information about its making, its meaning, its use, and its change over time. The Greenwich Conference can, as Caroline Villers concluded in 2003, be seen in retrospect as the moment when a new attitude toward conservation as a profession clearly emerged. A basis was laid for more scientifically informed and critical ways of thinking.15

  • 16  Villers, 2003, 1-15.

18As a consequence, interest also emerged about the history of the field. The article by Westby Percival-Prescott, The lining cycle: Causes of physical deterioration in oil paintings on canvas: lining from the 17th century to the present day in the papers of the same conference, is an important example of this.16 Not only did Percival-Prescott examine the former practice of lining in relation to historical painting technique and degradation processes, he also used that knowledge to estimate the consequences for the preservation of works of art in the future. The approach that emanated from his article made it clear that the conservation profession at that time had finally separated from the craft tradition by the inclusion of questions and knowledge concerning the material history and future of an art work in the considerations for treatment. The study of Conservation History had thus clearly been given a professional goal.

19This is an aspect that Marijnissen in 1965 would not have been able to see: that up to the time when he wrote his first overview, little attention had been paid to Conservation History because the field previously was not yet as professionalized. According to him, one of the reasons for the lack of an historical survey was the fact that historians and art historians at the time had so little interest. He took for granted that research should be done by (art) historians, because at that time it was not yet customary for conservators to carry out this kind of research. However, a decade later, the conservators themselves increasingly studied the history of their profession, as a clear consequence of its increased professionalism.

Increase of the study of Conservation History since the seventies

  • 17  Brandi, C. 2005 (1963). Theory of Restoration (G. Basile, ed. And C. Rockwell, trans.) Nardini Edi (...)
  • 18  The Murray Pease Committee (1964). The Murray Pease Report. In Studies in Conservation, Volume 9, (...)

20From the seventies forward, the study of Conservation History increased steadily. ICOM-CC founded in 1969 the working group Theory and History of Conservation -coordinated by Heinz Althöfer- which from that moment on paid continuous, international attention to the theoretical fundamentals of the discipline and the study of its history. Initially, the working group’s main aim was to shape the field’s own identity. Meanwhile Brandi's Teoria del Restauro17 had been published in 1963, and in 1964 the first document with ethical codes appeared as the Murray Pease report.18 The 1970s and first half of the ‘80s were marked by a flurry of activity in the field of further developing theories on conservation and restoration and of the ethical principles that gave rise to them, the defining of the profession, and the establishment of principles for training conservators.

21In connection with the search for identity, conservators looked for answers to questions about historical conservation practices. Who were the people who did conservation in the past; what were the political, regional, and cultural contexts; what were the ideas behind it; what materials and techniques were used, and what developments emerged?

22It was, as mentioned earlier, not easy to answer these questions because of the problems Marijnissen had already outlined in 1965, such as lack of material, the inability to systematically search for this scarce material, and the absence of a context. Looking back on the way knowledge about Conservation History has grown, it can be said that the main chronologies, which increasingly emerged, could be constructed based on the steady collecting and making accessible of archival materials and many small and larger in-depth investigations. Today still, but on a much more intensive scale, building blocks are being supplied that allow for the further study of a larger context.

23Some examples: Building blocks were initially established by the collection of sources and literature regarding historical conservation practices in publications. By 1932, abstracts of conservation literature in Technical Studies in the Field of the Fine Arts, were published by the Fogg Art Museum; this evolved to become AATA (Art and Archaeology Technical Abstracts) in 1966, which is now an online comprehensive database of abstracts of literature related to a wide range of subjects concerning the conservation of cultural heritage. The section ‘History, ethics, and policy’ first appeared in AATA in 1985.19 Joyce Plesters composed in 1968 an extensive bibliography for the book The Cleaning of Paintings by Helmut Ruhemann concerning many aspects of the conservation profession. Two -for the history of the conservation important chapters- are among it: The section History of Picture Restoration and Conservation, which displays publications with information on Conservation History from 1849 to 1964 (Marijnissen’s publication appeared just after this period), and the section Works on, or containing Sections on Restoration, pre-1900.20 Because these sources and literature were clearly listed and annotated, they were made available to the researcher. In this and various other ways infrastructures were set up for the examination of the history of conservation. Ernst van de Wetering did this in the 1970s in Amsterdam by creating a card index with a large amount of information from Dutch historical sources, which could be searched by topic.21 In 1975, Joyce Hill Stoner established The FAIC Oral History Project which led to the creation of an archive of transcripts of interviews with conservators, conservation scientists, and related professionals (now totalling almost 300). This ever-growing archive provides an invaluable record on the history of the field.22 Also a professional institute like ICCROM in Rome has already made a decades-long effort to make important source material available.23.

  • 24 Marvelde, M. M. te (1996). Jan van Dijk, an 18th-century restorer of paintings. In ICOM Committee f (...)
  • 25 Schaible, V. (1983). Die Gemäldeübertragung. Studien zur Geschichte einer ‘klassischen Restaurierme (...)
  • 26 Broos, B. and Wadum, J. (1998). Under the scalpel twenty-one times. The restoration history of The (...)
  • 27 Périer-d’Ieteren, C. (1992). Restoration in Belgium from 1830 to the present: painting, sculpture, (...)
  • 28 Bewer, F. (2010). A Laboratory for Art. Harvard’s Fogg Museum and the Emergence of Conservation in (...)
  • 29 Conti, A. (1973/2007). History of the Restoration and Conservation of Works of Art (H. Glanville, t (...)
  • 30 Stanley Price, N., Kirby Talley Jr. M. and A. Melucco Vaccaro, A. (1996) Historical and Philosophic (...)
  • 31  Émile-Mâle, G. (2008). Pour une histoire de la restauration des peintures en France. Études réunie (...)

24More and bigger building blocks and overviews became available continuously in the following decades in the form of in-depth studies of people (e.g. Jan van Dijk (around 1690-1769) in Holland; Robert Picault (1705-1781) and Jean-Louis Hacquin (before 1826-1883) in Paris; Pietro Edwards (1744-1821) in Venice; Pietro Palmaroli (1767-1828) in Rome and Dresden; Johann Jakob Schlesinger (1792-1855) in Berlin; Jacob Kornerup (1825-1913) in Denmark; Willem Antonij Hopman (1828-1910) in Holland; Alois Hauser (1857-1919) in Berlin; Sir William Flinders Petrie (1853-1942) in Egypt and Palestine; Stephen Pichetto (1887-1949) in The United States);24 into historical developments concerning conservation materials and techniques (e.g. transfer, regeneration method, retouching,);25 into conservation histories of certain works of art or ensembles (e.g. Rembrandt’s Anatomy lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp; Le Gladiateur Borghèse; The Oranjezaal, Royal Palace, The Hague);26 listings of conservation in various countries in certain periods (e.g. Belgium since 1830; Germany around 1800; Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic; France before La Restauration; Tuscany 1250-1500);27 into conservation history of certain institutes (e.g. Fogg Museum from 1900 to 1950; Gemäldegalerie Dresden beginning 18th century-1876; IIC 1950-2000);28 and larger overviews of Conservation History were written (e.g. A History of the Restoration and Conservation of Works of Art, by Alessandro Conti, 1973 and A History of Architectural Conservation by Jukka Jokiletho, 1999).29 Also, the most important documents and publications on historical and philosophical issues relating to the cultural heritage were brought together in two volumes, published by The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles in 1996 and 2004.30 A similar effort is mirrored in a French publication, in honour of Gilberte Émile-Mâle on the occasion of her death in 2008. It contains essential articles that were never published before or that were published before in magazines that do not have easy access. It contains a dictionary of conservators and of paintings treated in the time of the French Revolution and Empire.31

  • 32 Utermöhlen, H.A. (2002). La conservación en la República Dominicana: pasado, presente y future. In (...)
  • 33 Bewer, 2010.

25Research on Conservation History initially began in the European countries, but gradually spread to other parts of the world. This is evidenced by the many papers presented at the various ICOM-CC Conferences (e.g. relating to: the Dominican Republic, Ghana, India).32 And from the book by Francesca Bewer about the Fogg Art Museum it becomes clear that although the earliest History of Conservation may be found in Europe, the more scientific approach to the conservation profession and interdisciplinary cooperation began in early 20th-century America.33

  • 34 The Foundation for the Conservation of Contemporary Art (Dutch abbreviation: SBMK) has been occupie (...)
  • 35  Muñoz Viñas, S. (2005). Contemporary Theory of Conservation. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

26At first, as witnessed by the Historical overview by Marijnissen, particular attention was paid to the history of paintings conservation; most of the information found was on this topic. Research has now been carried out in the other disciplines, and indeed there appears that there is information to be found on all fronts, although that information may not always come from as far back in time. Not only has the research focused on the various traditional disciplines, but on all aspects of cultural heritage worldwide, such as the intangible heritage. And, the investigation of the recent Conservation History of contemporary art has led to entirely new ways of research (such as interviewing artists), to critically analyze traditional ethical principles and formulating new conservation principles (SBMK and INCCA).34 In 2005 Salvador Muñoz Viñas wrote his Contemporary Theory of Conservation, a coherent analysis of the developments in conservation theory over the past 25 years, leading on to the creation of a new theory of conservation.35

Publications

  • 36 Lengler, J., Baumgartner, M., Bilfinger, M. (ed.) (1991). Geschichte der Restaurierung in Europa/ H (...)

27In addition to ongoing research on Conservation History which continues to be presented at the triennial ICOM-CC meetings (as well as various interim meetings), a number of conferences and symposia have been organised since the end of the 1980s, focused on Conservation History, usually accompanied by pre- or post-prints. The first conference took place in two sessions, in Interlaken in 1989 and in Basel in 1991, under the title Geschichte der Restaurierung in Europa (History of Conservation in Europe). The sessions were followed by a two volume publication with 30 articles on very different issues, concerning both theory and practice and including many disciplines, as well as various summaries of Conservation History of different countries and historical developments of -for example- the methods of research on works of art and developments in the training of conservators.36

28Conferences and symposia with conservation historical themes followed increasingly. Some of the most important ones include:

  • 1996: Studies in the History of Painting Restoration at the National Gallery, London;

  • 2001: Past Practice-Future Prospects, at The British Museum, London;

  • 2003: The Art of Restoration: Developments and Tendencies of Restoration Aesthetics in Europe, German National Committee of ICOMOS and the Bavarian National Museum, Munich;

  • 2006: Theory and Practice in Conservation – A tribute to Cesare Brandi in Lisbon;

  • 2006: Conservation Legacies of the Florence Flood of 1966, at Villa La Pietra, New York University;

  • 2007: Art Conservation and Authenticities University of Glasgow, Scotland;

  • 2009: Conservation: Principles, Dilemmas and Uncomfortable Truths, Royal Academy of Arts, London;

  • 2010: The Restoration of Artworks in Europe from 1789-1815 – Practices, Transfers, Issues at the University of Geneva;

  • 2010: Conservation History, RKD (Netherlands Institute for Art History) The Hague, The Netherlands;

    • 37 Sitwell, C., and Staniforth, S. (eds.). (1998). Studies in the History of Painting Restoration. Nat (...)

    2013: Conservation in the Nineteenth Century and Conservation: Cultures and Connections (ICOM-CC THC interim meeting), both at the National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.37

  • 38 Besides articles on conservation history, in this journal a number of interviews with conservators (...)
  • 39 Especially the issues 27-28 3n 32 are specifically concentrated on conservation history.
  • 40 Fe, CeROArt dedicated a special issue to the ICOM-CC interim meeting in Copenhagen. https://ceroart (...)
  • 41 Reviews in Conservation was published in hard copy from 2000 to 2009; its content has then been inc (...)

29Furthermore, in the course of time, more and more articles with a conservation historical theme have been published in professional journals such as the German Maltechnik (later Maltechnik-Restauro now Restauro), Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung and Beiträge zur Erhaltung von Kunst- und Kulturgut,38, in the French Technê,39 occasionally in Studies in Conservation, and nowadays regularly in online magazines such as the Belgian CeROart.40 The journal Reviews in Conservation of IIC has also become an important platform for research into the history of the conservation profession. It compiles articles on topics concerning all the various conservation disciplines, bringing together what has been done and what is currently known about that specific area, based on past publications. Thus in every extended essay and bibliography, the history of the topic is examined and enriched.41

  • 42 Weyer, C. (1996).(ed.). Friedrich Lucanus, Anleitung zur Restauration alter Oelgemälde und zum Rein (...)
  • 43 Golz, M. von der, and Hanssen-Bauer,  F. (ed.). (1997). Manual on the Conservation of Paintings. [F (...)
  • 44 However, a reprise of the Greenwich Conference held at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, in 1 (...)
  • 45 Villers, 2003, p. XI.
  • 46 Brandi, 2005.

30A major contribution to the study of the History of Conservation has been the reissue of important historical publications. Some examples: in 1996, Anleitung zur Restauration alter Oelgemälden from 1828 by pharmacist and restorer Friedrich Lucanus (1793-1872) was reissued with an introduction by Cornelia Weyer.42 This book had been almost a standard in German conservation workshops for more than 150 years and therefore contains a wealth of information about the conservation traditions in Germany. In 1997, the Manual on The Conservation of Paintings from 1940 was reissued, on the initiative of and with an introduction by Michael von der Goltz and Françoise Hanssen-Bauer.43 The original book was the result of the first international congress in Rome in 1930 which marked an important moment in the professionalization of the field. For the first time, internationally renowned conservators, historians, and scientists combined their knowledge in one book. A third important example is the volume with papers of the above discussed Greenwich Conference from 1974. [This is actually not a reprint, but the first publication]. Although the conference had a far-reaching influence on the further development of the conservation profession, the papers were only published in book form in 2003 by Caroline Villers, who also wrote a comprehensive introduction. But, what is certain is that the bundle was photocopied countless times between 1974 and 2003.44 As Caroline put it, the papers form “a record of practice and of attitudes, they constitute one of the most important foundational texts about conservation practices in the late 20th century”.45 It is remarkable that the foreword was written by the then 80-year old Westby Percival-Prescott, co-organizer of the conference and author of The Lining Cycle. Another important example: In 2005, for the first time an English translation of Brandi's Teoria del Restauro was released with an introduction by Nicholas Stanley Price, making this important work finally accessible to a larger audience.46

31In addition to reissues of historical publications, in recent years more and more new -often voluminous- books have been published with conservation historical themes. It seems that the work that has been done makes it increasingly possible to fit pieces of a puzzle together and establish larger contexts. Two examples: the aforementioned book A Laboratory for Art. Harvard's Fogg Museum and the Emergence of Conservation in America 1900-1950 by Francesca Bewer in 2010 and Painting Restoration before La Restauration; The Origins of the Profession in France by Ann Massing in 2012. Both books bring forward enormous amounts of information and detailed views into important places and periods of time for the development of the conservation profession, each in its own way. Both authors place the information in context so that all kinds of major international linkages are emerging which contribute to the world History of Conservation.

32Apart from the traditional ways of publishing in the form of conference papers, journal articles and books, now modern media are increasingly used to gather conservation historical material, to exchange and share information, and to do research. In addition to electronic journals, there are also published newsletters and internet forums that are being used –such as of the ICOM-CC Working Group THC47- online libraries and databases can be consulted –such as AATA48- and archives are accessed, digitized, and made publicly available via the internet. Thus the Associazione Giovanni Secco Suardo and European partners (including IIC) are collaborating in a project called Historical Archive of European Conservator-Restorers, which aims to digitally collect material from different countries and make it public, so that in the long run a broad survey is created on various conservation activities that makes possible further research.49

  • 50 Brajer, I. (ed.). (2013). Conservation in the Nineteenth Century. Archetype Publications in associa (...)

33During the conference on the 19th century in Copenhagen in 2013 and the subsequent interim ICOM-CC meeting, once again it became clear that we have at this time an–at the time of Marijnissen's overview unthinkable- amount of available information, especially informative images of conservators and conservation treatments of the past.50

Further developments in the study of Conservation History

34Initially the research material for the History of Conservation was sought mainly in archives and early literature, not much in the works of art themselves. It was generally assumed that since most of the works of art in the course of time had been re-treated many times, it usually would not be possible to trace residues and consequences of previous treatments and to determine what treatments a particular work of art might have been subjected to in the past. Therefore, it was thought that the artwork itself could not be a reliable source regarding its own history. There could only be obtained concrete information on the latest treatment(s).

  • 51 Marvelde, M.M. te (1999). Research into the History of Conservation-restoration: remarks on relevan (...)
  • 52 Ekkart, R.E.O. (ed.) (to be published). The Oranjezaal. With contributions by Anne van Grevenstein (...)
  • 53 E.g. Schmitt, 1990. Schmitt published several articles on this subject.
  • 54 Stehr, U. (2012). Johann Jakob Schlesinger (1792-1855). Künstler – Kopist – Restaurator (=Jahrbuch (...)
  • 55 E.g. Brajer, I. and Thillemann, L. (2002). The wall paintings in Tirsted Church: problems of aesthe (...)

35Although it is still -depending on the type of treatment- often difficult to establish a direct link between information from sources and actual conservation practice, the artwork as a source of historical conservation information, has come to play an important role in recent decades. Through critical analysis of (residues) of previous treatments, the systematic collection, researching with scientific methods, and the interpretation thereof, patterns can emerge with regard to the methods of earlier conservators and their use of materials and techniques. Through the framework of information that is growing, non-documented treatments as well may be recognised and be attributed to conservators and/ or ages.51 In the case of the Oranjezaal, the large-scale paintings ensemble at the Royal Palace in The Hague, such research yielded an almost complete reconstruction of the conservation history of the paintings and the architectural elements in the hall.52 The Oranjezaal was a particular source, because there was quite a lot of archival material available while the amount of interventions in the past was limited. Another example where the artworks themselves have played an essential role in conservation historical research is the investigations by Sibylle Schmitt on the influence of the Pettenkofer regeneration method. She managed to document the disastrous impact that this method had on many paintings.53 And, Ute Stehr’s study of the activities of artist, copyist an restorer Johann Jakob Schlesinger (1792-1855) at the Picture Gallery of Berlin in Germany is also a good example of a close interaction between the investigation of a variety of archival sources and thorough examination of the paintings themselves, resulting in knowledge not only on the practical work, but also on the underlying ideas and professional attitude of Schlesinger.54 The same applies to ongoing research by Isabelle Brajer about medieval wall paintings in churches in Denmark, published in several articles.55 Brajer repeatedly demonstrated that in-depth investigation into the works themselves in close relation to archival material and scientific research can lead to knowledge that provides an important basis for thinking through decision-making regarding conservation-related, ethical, and aesthetic impact in new treatments.

  • 56 Emilie Froment is lecturer paintings conservation, University of Amsterdam. The title of the resear (...)
  • 57  Maartje Witlox-Stols is lecturer paintings conservation, University of Amsterdam. This research pr (...)

36In addition to the growing focus on the artwork itself as a source of historical conservation research, historically accurate reconstructions are also being used to investigate past conservation treatments and their influence on the artworks. Emilie Froment in Amsterdam, for example, uses reconstructions to investigate how 17th-century paintings may have darkened as a result of past wax-resin linings and whether darkening depends on the type of primer that was used and/ or the composition of the wax-resin and the execution of the treatment. In this way, she has also examined the possibility of measuring these discolorations objectively.56 Maartje Stols-Witlox is using reconstructions to research the effects of historical methods for the cleaning of oil paintings. She will test cleaning recipes on reconstructions and old paint layers that are considered expendable. She will characterize the properties of the agents described in historical sources and intends to compose an image atlas of surface changes caused by these methods.57

  • 58 Hill Stoner, J. and Rushfield, R.A. (ed.) (2012). Conservation of Easel Paintings, London and New Y (...)

37Through these many examples, it becomes clear that conservation historical research has become an integral part of the work of the conservator. Education on Conservation History is included in the curricula of conservation training programs, and research into earlier treatments is now an integral part of conservation projects. Students increasingly write theses on conservation historical themes and in publications of larger overviews, such as the recently published Conservation of Easel Paintings, edited by Joyce Hill Stoner and Rebecca Rushfield, historical and ethical principles are fully integrated.58 It is also notable that nowadays there are granting agencies that award money for conservation historical research and publication.

Conclusion

38In 1965 Marijnissen wrote an historical overview of the conservation profession. Although fragmentary, incomplete and, at some points hypothetical, this survey was a first chronology that integrated the theoretical foundations of the profession with the historical conservation practice. It formed a starting point for future investigation. His book is still an interesting and important publication. There have been many developments in the study of Conservation History since 1965, as I have tried to show above.

39The conservation profession had a long tradition of craftsmanship. Professional developments that began in the 19th century, finally led to a profession with a base of scientific and critical way of thinking by the 1970s. At that point, general interest blossomed in the history of this field. Gradually, more and more infrastructures have been established to collect archival material, to disclose, to make accessible, and to share; an increasing number of smaller and larger in-depth studies have been done. Conferences have been organized, working groups and various partnerships have been established. Many publications have appeared in journals, conference reports, and books with an increasing variety of topics concerning the theoretical, philosophical, and technical aspects of the field. In the course of time, research has focused increasingly on the history of change/changing ideas about concepts like authenticity and objectivity and shifts in thinking about conservation. Knowledge about Conservation History grew from the details in the big picture, and eventually it has become increasingly possible to see larger contexts.

40Looking back on the overview provided by Marijnissen and noting how the study of the History of Conservation has been further developed in the subsequent fifty years, several issues stand out.

41Marijnissen pointed out and explained the problem of lack of information but suspected that there should be more materials to find than at that moment seemed possible. Although there is -especially concerning the precise technical details in the far past- much material and knowledge still lacking, a snowball effect has taken place and increasingly unsuspected material has emerged. This has been a result of the unlocking and digitization of archives and libraries. At the same time, however, new knowledge arises because contexts are created in which information can be integrated and can be compared to other information. Ostensibly loose data suddenly can become meaningful when they can be linked to other data.

42Marijnissen, for his overview mainly carried out archival research and the study of historical publications. Nowadays the artwork itself occupies an important place in this investigation, and other methods are also used to examine the Conservation History, like scientific research and research through reconstructions.

43Marijnissen showed his disappointment at the lack of interest of (art-)historians for conservation historical research and ascribed that as reason for the lack of research to date. Nowadays, it is often the conservators themselves engaged in this research in collaboration with other disciplines; conservators examining their own field is a testament to professionalization. It has become an interdisciplinary affair and additionally an activity that forms a natural part of every conservation treatment. And, while Marijnissen still thought that this kind of research would mainly concern easel paintings, now research is carried out on the history of all disciplines. Moreover, the focus is no longer on Europe alone, but on the whole world.

44What Stübel exactly had in mind in 1926 as a “Corpus restaurationum” is not entirely clear, but he probably hoped that it would be possible to write a more or less ‘complete’ overview. What now becomes clear, ninety years after Stübel's call and fifty years after the survey by Marijnissen, is that Conservation History cannot be summarized in a few books; it has become a full-fledged historical science which is constantly developing and furthers the possibility of not only increasing the knowledge of the past more and more but also to investigate it permanently from new and different perspectives.

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Notes

1  Marijnissen, R. H. (1965). Het beschadigde kunstwerk. Een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden van een discipline inzake konservatie en restauratie (thesis), Gent 1965, 3 vols. (typescript). Marijnissen, 1965, 1-73.

2  Marijnissen, 1965, 1; Stübel, M. (1926) Gemälderestaurationen im 18. Jahrhundert. In Der Cicerone, Halbmonatsschrift für Künstler, Kunstfreunde und Sammler. Leipzig 1926, XVIII, 125-130. Page 122: “...eine echte Geschichtswissenschaft, die nur bruchstückweise von Bruchstücken berichtet.”

3  Marijnissen referred on the first page of his overview to the publication of L’atelier du temps. Essai sur l’altération des peintures, by Jacques Guillerme. (Paris: Hermann), in1964. This is a comprehensive book on the History of Conservation, containing very interesting material. However, Marijnissen concluded that Guillerme did not discuss the theoretical foundations of the profession. It seems that Marijnissen was the first to integrate theoretical foundations of the profession with the historical conservation practice.

4  Marijnissen, 1965, 6.

5  Marijnissen, 1965, 10.

6  Marijnissen, 1965, 15-27.

7  Marijnissen, 1965, 59-62.

8  Bredius, A. (1910). Drie Schilders-restaurators in 1685 te Amsterdam. In Oud Holland 28, 189-191.

9  O.a. Bredius, A. (1930). Archiefsprokkelingen. Hoe er vroeger reeds gecopieerd en gerestaureerd werd. In Oud Holland 47,  157-8.

10  Schendel, A. van, and Mertens, H.H. (1947). De restauraties van Rembrandt’s Nachtwacht. In Oud Holland 62: 1-52.

11  Brommelle, N. (1956). Material for a History of Conservation. In Studies in Conservation II, 176-188.

12  Grevenstein-Kruse, A. van (2005). Restauratie: Geschiedenis en Vooruitgang. Nijmegen University Press, 21-35. This text was spoken (shortened) as inauguration speech at the University of Nijmegen, May 26th 2005. The text concerns an overview of the history and development of the conservation profession, the History of Conservation education in Europe after the Second World War and the education of conservators in The Netherlands.

13  Coremans, P. (1953). L’Agneau Mystique au Laboratoire: examen et traitement. De Sikkel, Antwerp.

14  De papers of the conference were not published before 2003: Villers, C., ed. (2003). Lining Paintings. Papers from the Greenwich Conference on Comparative Lining Techniques. Archetype Publications.

15  Villers, 2003, Introduction.

16  Villers, 2003, 1-15.

17  Brandi, C. 2005 (1963). Theory of Restoration (G. Basile, ed. And C. Rockwell, trans.) Nardini Editore. [Originally published in 1963 as Teoria del restauro by Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura.]

18  The Murray Pease Committee (1964). The Murray Pease Report. In Studies in Conservation, Volume 9, Number 4, 116-21.

19  AATA volume 22 number 1, 1985. Since June 2002, AATA became AATA Online: Abstracts of International Conservation Literature, a free, Web-based resource. See for its history: http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/17_2/news_in_cons2.html

20  Ruhemann, H. (1968). The Cleaning of Paintings, Problems and Potentialities. Londen 1968. Pages 372-375 and 376-395. The section with literature on conservation history is at that moment still very small, while the sections with sources is much larger.

21  This archive is kept by the Cultural Heritage Agency of The Netherlands, Amersfoort.

22  http://www.conservation-us.org/foundation/initiatives/oral-history-project#.VMuU62iG_gw

23  http://www.iccrom.org/resources/

24 Marvelde, M. M. te (1996). Jan van Dijk, an 18th-century restorer of paintings. In ICOM Committee for Conservation 11th Triennial Meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1-6 September 1996, Preprints (J. Bridgland, ed.), vol 1, 182-6, James & James.; Schaible, V. (1983). Die Gemäldeübertragung. Studien zur Geschichte einer ‘klassischen Restauriermethode’. In  Maltechnik/ Restauro, 2, 96-129.; Darrow, E. (2001). Necessity Introduced these Arts: Pietro Edwards and the Restoration of the Public Pictures. In Past Practice-Future Prospects. (A. Oddy and S. Smith, eds.), 61-5, British Museum Occasional Papers 145, British Museum.; Bergeon, S. (1981). Un restaurateur Romain: Pietro Palmaroli. In ICOM Committee for Conservation 6th Triennial Meeting, Ottawa, Canada 1981, 21-25 September 1981, Preprints, 81/11/8. Paris; Stehr, U. (2012). Johann Jakob Schlesinger (1792-1855). Künstler – Kopist – Restaurator (=Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen; N.F. 53.2011, Beih.). Berlin, Gebr. Mann Verlag; Ørum, S. and Brajer, I. (2013). Jacob Kornerup and the conservation of wall-paintings in nineteenth century Denmark. In Conservation in the nineteenth century. (I. Brajer ed.), 116-128, Archetype Publications in association with the National Museum of Denmark and CATS.; Duijn, E.E. van. (1996). Van brood tot alcoholdamp; De ontwikkeling van het restauratieberoep in Nederland in de negentiende eeuw. Master’s thesis in art history, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands (unpublished).; Mandt, P. (1995). Alois Hauser d.J. (1857-1919) und sein Manuskript ‘Über die Restauration von Gemälden’. In Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung, 9(2), 215-31.; Sease, C. (2001). Sir William Flinders Petrie: An Unacknowledged Pioneer in Archeological Field Conservation. In Past Practice-Future Prospects. (A. Oddy and S. Smith, eds.), 183-88, British Museum Occasional Papers 145, British Museum.; Hoenigswald, A., Lorion, R. and Walmsley, E. (2001). Stephen Pichetto and Conservation in America: A Review of the Evidence. In Past Practice-Future Prospects. (A. Oddy and S. Smith, eds.), 123-28, British Museum Occasional Papers 145, British Museum.

25 Schaible, V. (1983). Die Gemäldeübertragung. Studien zur Geschichte einer ‘klassischen Restauriermethode’. In  Maltechnik/ Restauro, 2, 96-129; Schmitt, S. (1990). Das Pettenkofersche Regenerationsverfahren. In Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung, 4(1), 36 – 41.; Muir, K. (2009). Approaches to the reintegration of paint loss: theory and practice in the conservation of easel painting. In Reviews in Conservation 10, 19-28.

26 Broos, B. and Wadum, J. (1998). Under the scalpel twenty-one times. The restoration history of The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp. In Rembrandt under the scalpel; the anatomy lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp dissected, 39-50. Amsterdam, Six Art Promotion bv.; Bourgeois, B. (1999). L’envoi du Gladiateur Borghèse au Louvre. In ICOM Committee for Conservation 12th Triennial Meeting, Lyon, France, 29 August -3 September 1999, Preprints (J. Bridgland, ed.), vol 1, 155-160, James & James.; Marvelde, M.M. te (1999). Research into the History of Conservation-restoration: remarks on relevance and method. In ICOM Committee for Conservation 12th Triennial Meeting, Lyon, France, 29 August -3 September 1999, Preprints (J. Bridgland, ed.), vol 1, 194-9, James & James.; Ekkart, R.E.O. (ed.) (to be published). The Oranjezaal. With contributions by Anne van Grevenstein et al.

27 Périer-d’Ieteren, C. (1992). Restoration in Belgium from 1830 to the present: painting, sculpture, architecture. [in three languages: French, Dutch and English]. Pierre Mardaga, Liège.; Wagner, C. (1988). Arbeitsweisen und Anschauungen in der Gemälderestaurierungen um 1800. Georg D.W. Callway.; Goltz, M. von der. (2002). Kunsterhaltung-Machtkonflikte. Gemälderestaurierung zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik. Dietrich Reimer Verlag GmbH; Massing, A. (2012). Painting Restoration before La Restauration: The Origins of the Profession in France. Hamilton Kerr Institute, University of Cambridge; Hoeniger, C. (1995). The Renovation of Paintings in Tuscany, 1250-1500. Cambridge University Press.

28 Bewer, F. (2010). A Laboratory for Art. Harvard’s Fogg Museum and the Emergence of Conservation in America 1900-1950. Yale University Press.;  Schölzel, C. (2012). Gemäldegalerie Dresden. Bewahrung und Restaurierung der Kunstwerke von der Anfängen der galerie bis 1876. Verlag Gunter Oettel, Berlin.; Boothroyd Brooks, H. (2000). A short history of IIC; foundation and development. IIC, Kent.

29 Conti, A. (1973/2007). History of the Restoration and Conservation of Works of Art (H. Glanville, trans.). Elsevier. [Originally published in 1973 by Electra as Storia del Restauro e della Conservazione delle Opere d’Art.].; Jokiletho, J. (1999). A History of Architectural Conservation. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

30 Stanley Price, N., Kirby Talley Jr. M. and A. Melucco Vaccaro, A. (1996) Historical and Philosophical Issues in the Conservation of Cultural heritage. The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles.; Bomford, D. and Leonard, M. (2004). Issues in the Conservation of Paintings. The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles.

These compilations contain several important publications by (among others): J. Anderson , U. Baldini, C. Brandi, E.H. Combrich, A. Conti, S. Keck, R.H. Marijnissen, P. and L. Mora, P. Philippot, A. Riegl, H. Ruhemann, J. Ruskin, E.E. Violet-le-Duc, E. van de Wetering.

31  Émile-Mâle, G. (2008). Pour une histoire de la restauration des peintures en France. Études réunies par S. Bergeon Langle, coordination scientifique par G. Toscano, Somogy Éditions d’art, INP (Institut National du Patrimoine), Paris. Gilberte Émile-Mâle was the  pioneer in the field of the History of Conservation in France. The archives of Émile-Mâle are kept in the library of the INP: http://www.inp.fr/Formation-initiale-et-permanente/Formation-des-restaurateurs/Actualites/La-bibliotheque-du-departement-des-restaurateurs-depositaire-du-fonds-d-archives-de-Gilberte-Emile-Male

32 Utermöhlen, H.A. (2002). La conservación en la República Dominicana: pasado, presente y future. In ICOM Committee for Conservation 13th Triennial Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, 22-27 September 2002, Preprints (R. Vontobel, ed.), vol 1, 146-152, James & James.; Labi, K.A. (1993). The Teory and Practice of Conservation Among the Akans of Ghana. In ICOM Committee for Conservation 10th Triennial Meeting, Washington, DC, USA, 22-27 August 1993, Preprints (J. Bridgland, ed.), vol 1, 371-6, James & James.; Dahr, S. (2008). Addressing cultural diversity: challenges, meaning and consequences. In ICOM Committee for Conservation 15th Triennial Conference, New Delhi Washington, 22-26 September 2008, Preprints (J. Bridgland, ed.), vol 2, 1035-40, Allied Publishers, India.

33 Bewer, 2010.

34 The Foundation for the Conservation of Contemporary Art (Dutch abbreviation: SBMK) has been occupied with projects related to the maintenance and conservation of contemporary visual art and has largely contributed to the formulation of new strategies in thinking about the maintenance of contemporary art. http://www.sbmk.nl/about_sbmk/; INCCA-NA is an educational organization dedicated to engaging artists, art professionals, collectors, and the public in collaboration to address the challenges of conserving contemporary art. http://incca-na.org/artist-interview-workshops/

35  Muñoz Viñas, S. (2005). Contemporary Theory of Conservation. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

36 Lengler, J., Baumgartner, M., Bilfinger, M. (ed.) (1991). Geschichte der Restaurierung in Europa/ Histoire de la Restauration en Europe. 2 vol. Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft. And: Bilfinger, M., Boerlin, Y., Marty, C., Schiessl, U. (ed.) (1993). Geschichte der Restaurierung in Europa/ Histoire de la Restauration en Europe. Vol. II. Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft.

37 Sitwell, C., and Staniforth, S. (eds.). (1998). Studies in the History of Painting Restoration. National Gallery, London, 23 February 1996. Archetype Publications.; Oddy, A., and Smith, S. (eds.).  Past Practice-Future Prospects. British Museum, London, 12-14 September 2001. British Museum Occasional Papers 145, British Museum; Schädler-Saub, U. (ed.). (2005). Die Kunst der restaurierung: Entwicklungen und Tendenzen der Restaurierungsästhetik in Europa. Internationale Fachtagung des Deutsches Nationalkomitees von ICOMOS und des Bayerisches Nationalmuseums, München, 14-17 Mai 2003, Hefte des Deutschen Nationalkomitees, 40. Anton Siegl.;  Delgado Rodrigues J., and Mimoso, J.M. (eds.). (2006). Theory and Practice in Conservation, a tribute to Cesare Brandi, International Seminar, National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Lisbon, May 4-5, 2006, LNEC RNI 65, Lisbon; Spande, H. (ed.). (2009). Conservation Legacies of the Florence Flood of 1966: A Symposium Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Florence Flood in Villa La Pietra, New York, 10 – 11 November, 2006. Archetype Publications.; Hermens, E., and Fiske, T. (eds.). (2009). Art Conservation and Authenticities | Material, Concept, Context, University of Glasgow, Scotland, 12-14 September 2007. Archetype Publications.; Richmond, A., and Bracker, A. (2009). Conservation: Principles, Dilemmas and Uncomfortable Truths. On the occasion of the publication of the book: symposium 24-25 September 2009, Royal Academy of Arts, London. Elsevier.; The symposium at the RKD The Hague took place at 18 February 2010. There is no publication of the papers.; The symposium in Geneva took place 1-2 October 2010. There is no publication of the papers, but there is a review by Isabelle Brajer in ICOM-CC THC newsletter 16, February 2011; Brajer, I. (ed.). (2013). Conservation in the Nineteenth Century. 13-15 May 2103, National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen. Archetype Publications in association with the National Museum of Denmark and CATS.; Brajer, I. (ed.) (2013). Conservation, Cultures and Connections. Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Theory and History Group, 16-17 May 2103, National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen. CeROArt Hors Série, http://ceroart.revues.org/3508

38 Besides articles on conservation history, in this journal a number of interviews with conservators that had been made for the FAIC project have been published.

39 Especially the issues 27-28 3n 32 are specifically concentrated on conservation history.

40 Fe, CeROArt dedicated a special issue to the ICOM-CC interim meeting in Copenhagen. https://ceroart.revues.org/3508

41 Reviews in Conservation was published in hard copy from 2000 to 2009; its content has then been incorporated into Studies in Conservation and papers are now available as online supplements to the journal.

42 Weyer, C. (1996).(ed.). Friedrich Lucanus, Anleitung zur Restauration alter Oelgemälde und zum Reinigen und Bleichen der Kupferstiche und Holzschnitte. Nachdruck der 1. Auflage von 1828. (=Bücherei des Restaurators, vol. 2, ed. Ulrich Schiessl), Stuttgart: Enke 1996. The Bücherei des Restaurators was published by Ulrich Schiessl, who has stimulated the publication of German conservation historical literature to a large extent.

43 Golz, M. von der, and Hanssen-Bauer,  F. (ed.). (1997). Manual on the Conservation of Paintings. [First published by the International Museum Office, Paris, 1940]. Archetype Publications.

44 However, a reprise of the Greenwich Conference held at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, in 1976 (April 6-8), featured pre-prints in both English and French. This seminar with the title Lining of paintings - a reassessment/ Rentoilage des peintures – une réévaluation was arranged in order to evaluate the materials and techniques used for lining paintings and to re-examine in retrospect some of the territory explored at the Greenwich Conference. The pre-prints were edited by Mervyn Ruggles (Head, Restoration and Conservation Laboratory, National Gallery of Canada) and contain: The Lining Cycle by Westby Percival-Prescott, Hand Lining with Wax-Resin by Georges Messens, Italian Lining Techniques by Umberto Baldini and Sergio Taiti, Unconventional treatments for unconventional paintings by Gustav A. Berger and Marouflage and Consolidation by M. Ruggles. In addition, the preprints contain two Xeroxes of the ICOM-CC preprints from 1975: Vacuum envelopes by Gillian Lewis (75/11/6) and Further developments in cold lining (nap-bond system) by W. Mehra (75/11/5 1-25). [Information received from Joyce Hill Stoner]. It seems that little people know about these preprints, since there is no reference in the volume that is edited by Caroline Villers.

45 Villers, 2003, p. XI.

46 Brandi, 2005.

47 http://www.icom-cc.org/forums

48 http://aata.getty.edu/Browse

49 http://www.associazionegiovanniseccosuardo.it/

50 Brajer, I. (ed.). (2013). Conservation in the Nineteenth Century. Archetype Publications in association with the National Museum of Denmark and CATS.; Brajer, I. (ed.) (2013). Conservation, Cultures and Connections. Interim Meeting of the ICOM-CC Theory and History Group, 16-17 May 2103, Copenhagen. CeROArt Hors Série, https://ceroart.revues.org/3508

51 Marvelde, M.M. te (1999). Research into the History of Conservation-restoration: remarks on relevance and method. In ICOM Committee for Conservation 12th Triennial Meeting, Lyon, France, 29 August -3 September 1999, Preprints (J. Bridgland, ed.), vol 1, 194-9, James & James.

52 Ekkart, R.E.O. (ed.) (to be published). The Oranjezaal. With contributions by Anne van Grevenstein et al. Contributions concerning the conservation history of the Oranjezaal by P. van der Heiden,  R. Jongsma, M. te Marvelde and W. Haakma Wagenaar.

53 E.g. Schmitt, 1990. Schmitt published several articles on this subject.

54 Stehr, U. (2012). Johann Jakob Schlesinger (1792-1855). Künstler – Kopist – Restaurator (=Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen; N.F. 53.2011, Beih.). Berlin, Gebr. Mann Verlag.

55 E.g. Brajer, I. and Thillemann, L. (2002). The wall paintings in Tirsted Church: problems of aesthetic presentation after the fourth re-restoration. In ICOM Committee for Conservation 13th Triennial Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, 22-27 September 2002, Preprints (R. Vontobel, ed.), vol 1, 153-9, James & James.

56 Emilie Froment is lecturer paintings conservation, University of Amsterdam. The title of the research is: Physical consequences of wax resin linings to Dutch Golden Age large scale paintings on canvas. It is a Ph.D. research of the university of Amsterdam, supported by the Gieskes-Strijbis Fonds.

57  Maartje Witlox-Stols is lecturer paintings conservation, University of Amsterdam. This research project is supported by Het Amsterdams Universiteitsfonds. See: http://www.auf.nl/doneren/vormen-van-schenken/jaarfondscampagne/onderzoek.html

58 Hill Stoner, J. and Rushfield, R.A. (ed.) (2012). Conservation of Easel Paintings, London and New York, Routledge.

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Mireille te Marvelde, « From Roger Marijnissen’s Historical overview to the present day: some thoughts concerning half a century’s development of Conservation History as a discipline  », CeROArt [En ligne],  | Juin 2015, mis en ligne le 05 juin 2015, consulté le 27 septembre 2016. URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/4623

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Mireille te Marvelde

Mireille te Marvelde studied Art History at the University of Amsterdam (1983-1989) and was trained as a paintings conservator at the Limburg Conservation Institute, Maastricht (1990-1995). She worked on several projects at the Royal Cabinet of Paintings Mauritshuis (The Hague). As a member of the Dutch Molart Project (Molecular Aspects of Ageing in Painted Works of Art) and employed as paintings conservator to the conservation project of the Oranjezaal (Royal Palace Huis ten Bosch, The Hague), she investigated the Conservation History of the paintings in the Oranjezaal. Mireille te Marvelde has been active as coordinator of  ICOM-CC’s Working Group Theory and History of Conservation and has lectured and published on related subjects. She has been employed at the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem since 1999.

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CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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