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Issues of conservation and restoration of two photographic works by Zbigniew Dłubak: Onona and Desymbolisations

Monika Supruniuk

Résumés

La publication se base sur une thèse de mastère réalisée à l’Académie des Beaux-Arts de Varsovie, en avril 2011. L’article décrit la conservation et la restauration de deux œuvres de Zbigniew Dłubak. « Onona » est un objet d’espace construit à partir d’une photographie grand format et d’un profil facial d’homme découpé dans une dalle agglomérée. « Désymbolisations » est une série de cinq photographies. La manière de réaliser l’hypothèse de conservation adoptée par l’auteure est totalement différente pour chaque ouvrage. L’objet d’espace a subi la conservation-restauration, et la série des photographies a été reconstruite à la base des épreuves analogiques.

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Texte intégral

Introduction

1Contemporary art is characterised - also in the field of photography - by overlapping of artistic disciplines, using non-traditional materials and innovative forms going beyond the fine arts, film and music. It is no longer surprising that photographic exhibitions present digital photographic prints, slide presentations/digital projections or installations. With the aim of making up for shortcomings in interpretation, we started using the term of ‘photography’ not only for 'reproducible two-dimensional images produced with the use of optical mechanisms and chemical processes', but also for spatial objects, photomontages, compositions of negatives and slide presentations, which are usually presented with digital projectors e.g. with musical accompaniment. The traditional definition of photography gradually extended to subsequent areas of art. Therefore, photography has finally been released from its service nature of providing the copies of reality.

  • 1 I. Szmelter, W. Kowalski, Wystawiennictwo  sztuki nowoczesnej a ochrona integralności utworów, 'Mu (...)
  • 2 I. Szmelter, Paradygmat teorii i praktyki konserwatorskiej w odniesieniu do sztuki nowoczesnej, [w (...)

2Due to such a wide application, it was necessary to update previous preservation strategies. With regard to contemporary art, additional questions arose, which mostly concerned the issue of keeping the objects d'art authenticity, and their permanence/impermanence or reproduction1. New procedures require a new role for the conservator-restorer – now focused on an individualised approach to storage and transport of objects. Also, a certain novelty is the need to extend documentation of an object by including the artists in studies on the idea and context of the work origin, and the significance of matter and determination of presentation conditions, which would ensure integrity and authenticity during an exhibition2.  

  • 3 Zbigniew Dłubak (1921–2005) was a Polish painter, photographer, and art theoretician. During World (...)
  • 4 This paper is based on MA project, elaborated at Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Poland. The super (...)
  • 5 Translation of the title: 'Shehe'

3The case of two photographic works by Zbigniew Dłubak3, which are subjects of the thesis4 elaborated by the author of this article, is an attempt of using the above mentioned procedures. Actions concerning the replica of spatial photographic object Onona5 from 1992 were focused on maintaining the original substance of work by respecting the historical technology of making prints. And the works referring to one of photographic boards from Desymbolisations series from 1971, consisted of a full reconstruction of the work.Both conservation projects, based on different assumptions and applied methods, are linked – not only by the artist – by an individualised approach to a work of art, which allowed the introduction various conservation solutions.

  • 6 Interviews were carried out with Armelle Dłubak (wife), prof. Mariusz Łukawski (long term assistan (...)

4An attempt to determine significance of the works was preceded by context analysis of their origin, based on source research and numerous interviews with kith and kin as well as associates of the artist6. Research allowed one to determine the meaning of objects and contributed to understanding Dłubak's art in the context of his life, traces of time and his importance.

Meaning and appearances of the works

5Demythologisation is the key term, which filled the work of the artist.They are also reflected in the two works of Dłubak, which are subject of this article - Onona and Desymbolisations.   

Onona

6The first one is a replica of spatial photographic object entitled Onona.

Fig.1 Onona by Zbigniew Dlubak (1992)

Fig.1 Onona by Zbigniew Dlubak (1992)

Credit Monika Supruniuk

7The original version of work was presented at the exhibition entitled Searching photographers in 1971. Shortly after that, the object was destroyed7. Hence, the subject of conservation and restoration is the author's replica created in 1992 for an exhibition entitled Zbigniew Dłubak, Works from 1961-1991, which took place at the Centre for Contemporary Art Ujazdowski Castle in 1992.

8The replica consisted of two parts, equal in respect of the construction and the meaning. The first part is a black irregular form presenting a silhouette of a standing man shown in profile and made of chipboard. The second part is a black and white photograph. The photo multiplies a deformed female nude without hands, feet and head. As a result of the difference in the time of the exposure of the negative, the light parts of the picture have horizontal obscurities.

  • 8 The attempt to compare both objects was based on reproduction of photographs documenting the exhib (...)

9During a comparative analysis8 of the work from 1971 and its replica from 1992, differences in the manner of work and artist's approach to form, were noticed. While restoring his concept, the artist did not carry out a mechanical repetition of previous work.Still, the changes in the form of replica are not so significant that one had to examine the works separately; they only prove an open approach to the form of the object.

Desymbolisations

10The second work requiring conservation was an original board from the Desymbolisations series.

Fig. 2 Desymbolisations by Zbigniew Dlubak (1978)

Fig. 2 Desymbolisations by Zbigniew Dlubak (1978)

Credit: Monika Supruniuk

11The work summed up many years of Dłubak’s experience focused on throwing doubt on the belief that the artistic values were contained in one physical art object. Five black and white photographs presenting sequences of hand movements are part of the original series from 1978.Thanks to studies on meaning and the message of the work, it was possible to find a strict relationships between the board and the rest of the series.Taking the photograph out of the context by, disturbing relationships between individual elements, can cause loss of the work clarity.

12The series of Desymbolisations was an act performed on the art.Dłubak presented photographic reproductions of religious objects and paintings of renowned Polish masters – Jacek Malczewski, Jankiel Adler, Jan Matejko, Jozef Mehoffer – and made them starting points for his own works.Desymbolisations consisted of an attempt to change the original meanings behind details full of symbolic representations. Details – which were meaningful by their configuration and relationship with other elements.The artist tried to prove existence of only the 'neutral' things to which we give the meaning, and also the symbolic one, afterwards. Dłubak photographed Jewish tombstones featuring the motif of hands in the spread-fingered gesture of priestly blessing. Dłubak juxtaposed the matzevot photographs with a series of images of hands, shown, like in Desymbolisations, against a black background. In one of the photographs the fingers are spread in the same manner as in the Jewish blessing gesture. But within the sequence the gesture is not made – the hands do not bless.

13Desymbolisations series did not have a constant configuration.It treated photography instrumentally and objectively, only as a carrier of a certain idea or objective reproduction.The artist used this medium for recording the reality.He was far from placing his own aesthetics or stylisation in the photographs. Desymbolisations are significant reflections of Dłubak’s theory concerning the role of an artist.He forced the recipients to lose their habits through which they perceived the paintings and objects of cult for many years.

Discrepancy between condition and meaning of the works

14Indication of dissonance between the current condition and the artist’s intention is the basis for carrying out possible conservator’s modifications.Discrepancies in case of Dłubak’s photographic works, were determined by analysis of all elements - both material and conceptual.The conservation project was of an open nature.Its completion took place during the works, after gaining full knowledge.Due to the fact that it was unfeasible to obtain the artist’s opinion on exchange of work elements, all possibilities regarding protecting the original matter were considered.

Onona

15The replica of spatial photographic work Onona was stored in the warehouse of the Centre for Contemporary Art Ujazdowski Castle in Warsaw from the time of its creation. The work was damaged in the 'museum conditions'. The state of the object was affected by external factors and natural material aging processes. For many years the object was exposed to light. Irresponsible storage subjected the replica to mechanical damages: dirt, stains but most of all extensive tears of photographic prints.

Fig. 3 Areas of mechanical damages

Fig. 3 Areas of mechanical damages

Credit: Monika Supruniuk

16Most of the damages were caused by lack of due care while handling which resulted in the object losing its exhibition qualities. Visible damages led to diversion of the viewer’s attention to a new area of expression, competing with the author’s intention.

  • 9 Digitisation of the negative in high resolution makes the object reconstruction still an open issu (...)

17While gathering information on the work, a negative used for making the photographs was found.However, the author did not decide to use it for reconstruction of the prints for two reasons.First one was related to the fact that there was a problem with access to proper enlarger and photographic paper with properties similar to the original.The second problem was related to the fact that the replica is the only author’s version of the Onona, therefore, restoration the object consisting of the original elements was attempted9.

Desymbolisations

18Other object, consisting of five black and white photographs from the series of Desymbolisations was stored in the National Museum in Warsaw, where the prints were exposed to drastic thermal and humidity changes. The board was stored in vertical position. After flooding the storage area, when water was at a constant level, the emulsion of fourth and fifth photograph was almost totally damaged, which resulted in microbiological infection.Photographic emulsion, consisting of gelatine, was highly susceptible to bio-deterioration.Additionally, the object condition was affected by aging process of the adhesive – polyvinyl acetate – used for fixing the photograph to canvas.It is highly possible that the adhesive caused acidification of the photograph base.The acidity of the environment was a significant factor in accelerating the development and growth of the mould. Extensive acidity causes chemical hydrolysis of cellulose and therefore it has an adverse effect on physio-chemical properties of the base and bio-resistance of photographic emulsion.The fifth photograph was damaged to the greatest extent.

Fig. 4 Microbiological infection of the fifth photograph

Fig. 4 Microbiological infection of the fifth photograph

Credit: Monika Supruniuk

19Only a residual outline of a hand could be seen on the front of the photograph.Apart from the characteristic signs of erupting mycelium, there were water stains on the upper edge of the print. As a result of drastic environmental changes the lower print shrunk and its width decreased by 2 mm comparing to other prints.Also the fourth photograph was degraded.

Fig. 5 Microbiological infection of the fourth photograph

Fig. 5 Microbiological infection of the fourth photograph

Credit: Monika Supruniuk

20The edge of damage showed the height to which the object had been immersed in floodwater. The lower part of the print was matt and deformed.The middle part had many many areas without emulsion, exposing the paper base, which was also spongy and stratified as in the case of the lower part of the photograph.Other photographic prints were in good condition.The photographs were slightly distorted, and as a result of that their edges were exposed to abrasions and small losses in the emulsion layer.

Proposed treatment

Onona

21A significant conservation problem was a delicate construction of the art object. The photograph was fixed directly to 'profile-rack' only in the middle part, which was 2.8 cm wide. Another dimensions of the object: man profile height (chipboard) – 168cm, width (the widest section) – 25cm, basis edge (chipboard) – 60cm; photography height – 402cm, width – 51cm. The remaining parts of the print were vulnerable to even the smallest external factors. An attempt was made to stop the proceeding damage by fixing tears with acrylic double-sided sticky tape.

Fig. 6 Old repairs of tears with acrylic double-sided sticky tape

Fig. 6 Old repairs of tears with acrylic double-sided sticky tape

Credit: Monika Supruniuk

22Careless repairs disturbed the smooth surface of the base, causing a decrease in the art object's exhibition qualities. Attempts to stop extensive tears using sticky tape were an unfortunate choice of material, but on the other hand, these initial activities saved the object from further damage.

23One of the main objectives of the conservation was stop the processes of mechanical destruction and subsequently restoring the art work. After precise analysis, both from a technical and a stylistic point of view, a decision was made to separate the photograph and profile-rack. The main argument in favour of unsticking the prints was the fact that without that separation it would be impossible to carry out full conservation and restoration. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a method allowing the removal of the adhesive.

  • 10 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) test was carried out by Joanna Kurkowska, Ph.D. at the Faculty o (...)
  • 11 The accelerated aging test was carried out under the supervision of Władysław Sobucki and Prof. Ma (...)
  • 12 More information on application of the liquid: I. Zając, W. Sobucki,Use of WEICONSealant & Adhesiv (...)

24The photograph and chipboard were glued with polyvinyl acetate-based adhesive10. To separate the elements, a metal spatula was used, which had previously been properly profiled. A heated tool was placed between the photograph and the chipboard. And so a thin layer of adhesive with thermoplastic features enabled gentle separation of the photograph from the rack. The process required high precision and exactness in application of this high temperature. After separation, the adhesive and black paint remained both on the surface of paper base and the chipboard. To find a proper method for removal of the rest of adhesive and paint, a test for accelerated aging of bio-enzyme agent WEICON® was carried out in an environmental chamber without access to light11. A satisfactory test result enabled the application of the agent, which proved very effective in removing of polyvinyl acetate-based adhesive12.

Fig.7 Application of the bio-enzyme agent WEICON®

Fig.7 Application of the bio-enzyme agent WEICON®

Credit: Monika Supruniuk

25After fixing tears and filling cavities, the photograph was lined with cotton paper with P.A.T. (Photographic Activity Test). That action was taken due to the form of the work. As a result of object construction, the reverse is as visible as the front of the photograph. Apart from strengthening the structure, lining levelled the surface of the base and hid the repairs, which increased the exhibition qualities of the work. After the lining, the photograph was dried using ballast and the emulsion layer was protected with one-sided silicone coated polyester film. This action allowed maintained characteristic semi-glossy surface of the print front.

  • 13 I. Szmelter, W. Kowalski, Wystawiennictwo..., op. cit., s. 37

26The profile-rack was tilted and lost its bearing stability. It is most probable that as a result of external factors the irregular form resembling a man silhouette, was tilted. The original assembly of two elements made of chipboard could hardly bear the damages caused by external factors and the weight of vertical profile-rack. Following the rules, when maintaining the integrity of artistic work - to strengthen the object structure without changing its expression13 - the decision to support the construction with wooden stakes fixed from the underside of the base.  

Fig. 8 Onona, before and after treatment

Fig. 8 Onona, before and after treatment

Credit: Monika Supruniuk

  • 14 A. Wielocha, Opieka nad sztuką współczesną – zagadnienia związane z przewożeniem obiektów nietypow (...)

27Onona by Zbigniew Dłubak, due to its size and technique, is difficult to handle, not only during transportation but also during storage. Problems when moving it, are exacerbated by the complex and very fragile construction of the object. Due to destruction of the work, it was decided to design a protective box.Additionally, the replica received a category of 'immobile'14 object, which meant it would require the preparation of procedures for moving the object within the museum. Transport outside the museum should be considered only in special cases.

Fig. 9 Onona, before and after treatment

Fig. 9 Onona, before and after treatment

Credit: Monika Supruniuk

Desymbolisations

28Due to historical value of the original items, it was important to maintain the photographs in the current form, as traces of time, technique and artist's workshop.After preventive conservation aiming at stopping microbiological and mechanical degradation, the original was placed in protective cover.Additionally, the photograph was digitised.

29Object damages disturbed the consistent form based on hand movement sequence.Destruction in the movement could evoke anxiety - unintended by the artist – which is sometimes intentionally used in contemporary art objects, using such means of expressions as disorder and purposeful damage of the matter.Consequently, as a result of damage, the work gained a new substance, far from the original one.

30The main objective of conservation and restoration of the work was protection of its conceptual values.Developing of procedure depended on the scale of irreversible damages. The attempt of their removal by e.g. performing retouch directly on the original matter of emulsion could be controversial due to unavoidable breach of neutrality of the photographic medium.

31During the initial studies of the work meaning it was determined that in case of Desymbolisations, the photographic medium was of a secondary importance, hence, the exchange (reconstruction) of the idea carrier – the photography – in order to maintain the message of the work seemed to be acceptable. In the case of works made with so called mechanical techniques such as photography, the basis for reconstruction are the prints, negatives or reproductions of the object.In case of this work, the full reconstruction of the object was made on the basis of digital versions of analogous prints, exposed from the same negative as the damaged photographs.The analogy was found on the basis of small scratches and dust copied - demage to the negative - characteristic for both series of photographs.In order to compare and carry out digital restoration of the image, the restorers used Adobe Photoshop CS3 programme, which was perfect for compilation of the image and removal of small defects thanks to tools it offered. Files before and after reconstruction were saved in TIF format (lossless data compression) in resolution 5261 x 5364 pixels, both in RGB colour model and in grayscale.Based on digital version of the photograph, a counter negative was made on polyester film base, enabling performance of photographic prints on the base similar to the original one.The new negative provided additional protection, since the original is yet to be discovered.

  • 15 FOTON Bydgoskie Zakłady Fotochemiczne declared bankruptcy on 5 February 2002. However, the company (...)
  • 16 In full reconstructed five photographs are described as a reconstruction made with digital prints (...)

32One of the main problems related to reconstruction of the photographs was finding the proper base.The results of many tests carried out on barium photographic papers of:Foma Bohemia, Ilford, FOTON Bydgoskie Zakłady Fotochemiczne15 were not satisfactory. The most similar to the original prints were made on FOTON paper, however, due to limited access to bases (which had already expired anyway) it was not possible to find paper with properties similar to the original.After the tests, it seemed the simplest and most effective solution to use a computer printout16.

  • 17 Prints made with HP Vivera Pigment Inks and HP media have display permanence ratings of 200+ years (...)

33The colour of the photograph (black-white - grayscale) changed to brown as a result of aging process.While preparation the printout, it was decided to convert the RGB images to grayscale in order to obtain the original colours of the work.Printouts were made on HP Premium Instant-dry Gloss Photo 260g/m2 base. The image was obtained with eight-colour ink pigments HP Vivera.Printouts were made on HP Designjet Z2100. Due to exceptional sensitivity of the computer printouts to external environment, strict rules for storage and exposition of the reconstruction were drawn up17.

Fig. 10 Desymbolisations, before and after treatment

Fig. 10 Desymbolisations, before and after treatment

Credit: Monika Supruniuk

Conclusion

34The main assumption of the conservation and restoration carried out on the two photographic works by Zbigniew Dłubak, was establishing and recognising the precise meaning of the works.The analysis allowed making a decision to be made on whether to perform absolute maintenance of the original matter, or carry out a complete reconstruction. In order to do so, the restorer tried to use the means available, such as digital technology, and to perform a reconstruction test with use of photographic papers from the times when the work had been originally created.Paradoxically, in case of the above mentioned actions, the best results were achieved with application of the latest tools and materials.

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Notes

1 I. Szmelter, W. Kowalski, Wystawiennictwo  sztuki nowoczesnej a ochrona integralności utworów, 'Muzealnictwo', no 49, Warsaw 2008, s. 38

2 I. Szmelter, Paradygmat teorii i praktyki konserwatorskiej w odniesieniu do sztuki nowoczesnej, [w:] Współczesne problemy teorii konserwatorskiej, red. Bogusław Szmygin, Warsaw-Lublin 2008, s. 135

3 Zbigniew Dłubak (1921–2005) was a Polish painter, photographer, and art theoretician. During World War II he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, but managed to survive. In 1945 he returned to Poland, where he took an active part in the reconstruction of Polish artistic life after six years of foreign occupation. He became one of the cofounders of an artistic group 'Grupa 55'. He also cooperated with various art galleries and artistic groups, among them Krzywe Koło, Mała Galeria, Permafo, and Foto-Medium-Art. Between 1953 and 1972 he was editor-in-chief of the 'Fotografia' monthly. He was also a tutor at the NationalFilm School in Lodz and at the Higher School of Fine Arts in Lodz.

4 This paper is based on MA project, elaborated at Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Poland. The supervisor of the thesis was Prof. Marzenna Ciechańska. The author would like to thank Prof. Marzenna Ciechańska for her support and trust.

5 Translation of the title: 'Shehe'

6 Interviews were carried out with Armelle Dłubak (wife), prof. Mariusz Łukawski (long term assistant to Dłubak at the State Higher School of Visual Arts in Lodz) and Karolina Lewandowska (curator of one of the largest exhibitions of the artist).

7 J. Wojcik, Doswiadczenia z rzeczywistoscia, ‘Fototapeta’, http://fototapeta.art.pl/2001/dlb.php, 24.03.2013

8 The attempt to compare both objects was based on reproduction of photographs documenting the exhibition Searching photographers from 1971, from the interview made with the artist by E. Janicka and actual inspection of maintained replica from 1992. Reproduction of photographs presenting the Searching photographers exhibition were placed in the magazine 'Fotografia', no. 7, Warsaw 1971, s. 146-155

9 Digitisation of the negative in high resolution makes the object reconstruction still an open issue.

10 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) test was carried out by Joanna Kurkowska, Ph.D. at the Faculty of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art, the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw. It was indicated that the tested sample contained polyvinyl acetate.

11 The accelerated aging test was carried out under the supervision of Władysław Sobucki and Prof. Marzenna Ciechańska at the Conservation and Restoration of Old Prints, Graphics and Antique Leather, the Faculty of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art., the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw.

12 More information on application of the liquid: I. Zając, W. Sobucki,Use of WEICONSealant & Adhesive Remover' in the  Conservation Process of 'Lindley’s Plans, [w:] New Approaches to Book and Paper Conservation - Restoration, red. Engel, P., Schirò, J., Larsen,R., Moussakova, E., Kecskeméti, I., Vienna 2011, s. 651-664

13 I. Szmelter, W. Kowalski, Wystawiennictwo..., op. cit., s. 37

14 A. Wielocha, Opieka nad sztuką współczesną – zagadnienia związane z przewożeniem obiektów nietypowych [w:] O opiece nad kolekcją, red. M. Bogdańska-Krzyżanek, J. Egit-Pużyńska, Warsaw 2008, s. 107

15 FOTON Bydgoskie Zakłady Fotochemiczne declared bankruptcy on 5 February 2002. However, the company products are still available on the market. In case of papers used for tests, the production date was ca. 1983-1992.

16 In full reconstructed five photographs are described as a reconstruction made with digital prints when they are exhibited.

17 Prints made with HP Vivera Pigment Inks and HP media have display permanence ratings of 200+ years and are considered 'archival'. More details: Wilhelm Imaging Research, http://www.wilhelm-research.com/hp/Z3200.html, 31.03.2013

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig.1 Onona by Zbigniew Dlubak (1992)
Crédits Credit Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 988k
Titre Fig. 2 Desymbolisations by Zbigniew Dlubak (1978)
Légende Credit: Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 268k
Titre Fig. 3 Areas of mechanical damages
Légende Credit: Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 840k
Titre Fig. 4 Microbiological infection of the fifth photograph
Légende Credit: Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 712k
Titre Fig. 5 Microbiological infection of the fourth photograph
Légende Credit: Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 944k
Titre Fig. 6 Old repairs of tears with acrylic double-sided sticky tape
Légende Credit: Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 360k
Titre Fig.7 Application of the bio-enzyme agent WEICON®
Légende Credit: Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 428k
Titre Fig. 8 Onona, before and after treatment
Légende Credit: Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 296k
Titre Fig. 9 Onona, before and after treatment
Légende Credit: Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 704k
Titre Fig. 10 Desymbolisations, before and after treatment
Légende Credit: Monika Supruniuk
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3225/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 374k
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Référence électronique

Monika Supruniuk, « Issues of conservation and restoration of two photographic works by Zbigniew Dłubak: Onona and Desymbolisations », CeROArt [En ligne], 3 | 2013, mis en ligne le 10 mai 2013, consulté le 25 juin 2017. URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/3225

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Auteur

Monika Supruniuk

Monika Supruniuk is a paper and photographic materials conservator, MA graduate of the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Poland, at the Department of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art. Currently working on the project ‘Conservation and digitalization of pre-war feature films at the National Film Archive in Warsaw’.

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Licence Creative Commons
CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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