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Conservation issues of large rolled paintings on the Portuguese altarpieces

Rita Macedo Moreira

Résumés

Cet article porte sur l'étude du contexte historique et les problèmes de conservation des grandes peintures sur toile enroulable dans les retables portugais, du XVIIIe au XXe siècle, soulignant ainsi leur originalité et leur dynamisme. Largement utilisé au Portugal, ce type de peinture est exposé pendant une période déterminée de l'année liturgique et, selon les dispositifs scéniques, est présenté ou tout simplement enroulé par le système qui le meut. De cette particularité procèdent des effets de dégradation caractéristiques, aussi bien que des exigences très spécifiques concernant l'exposition des peintures.

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Texte intégral

Historical and liturgical context

  • 1  ZIELINSKI, D. M. J., Spazio litúrgico e arte sacra, Padova, Pontificia Commissione per i Beni Cult (...)

1
"Come and see," stated Jesus Christ in the Gospel of John (1:39). According to Rev.mo P. Ab. Michael John Zielinski1, this was already an invitation to contemplation rather than a simple appeal to hearing, and emerged a request for visualisation. Within this perspective and according to liturgy’s evolution and pastoral needs, it became extremely important to integrate the concept of beauty. All types of art were called for the sacred spaces, leading to a dynamic environment.

  • 2  GUERRA, A., RODRIGUEZ, C., História do Cristianismo: guia Ilustrado, Venda Nova, Bertrand Editora, (...)
  • 3  PEREIRA, P., Arte portuguesa: história essencial, Lisboa, Círculo de Leitores, 2011, p.345.
  • 4  FIGUEIREDO, P., “A herança artística da Companhia de Jesus”, In São Francisco Xavier: a sua vida e (...)

2Historical data relating to the origin of veneration practices on Christian churches is scarce. However, since Constantine’s time, a great concern with celebrations and liturgical worship can be found. The main celebrations occurred on Easter and Pentecost, which evocated the death, resurrection and ascension of Christ. After Constantine law, Sunday became a festive day, similar to pagan events. Sunday liturgies adopted some of the elements of court ceremonies such as the use of incense, the escort of priests carrying candles and the use of curtains to divide the altar where the Eucharist was celebrated.2 During those days of greatest splendour, usually dedicated to the veneration of relics, the church was opened and brightened as if it was a jewel, leading crowds into its interior.3  The altar was "(...) the noble and sacred place by excellence, where all the attention and movements should converge to. Thus, from the moment that worshippers transposed the temple’s door, they were 'taken' to pursue a rectilinear spiritual journey, free from obstacles, columns or pillars, targeted to meet God."4

  • 5  IDEM, Ibidem, p.23.

3At the beginning of the 17th century the so called devotion of forty hours was already implemented in Portugal, relating to a ritual, prescribed by the counter-reformation, which consisted in the veneration of the Holy Sacrament for forty hours, in memory of the period that Jesus Christ’s body spent in its tomb until Resurrection. Lausperene was another devotion that included the solemn exhibition of the Holy Sacrament5 and both spread, rapidly, throughout the whole of the national territory.

  • 6  IDEM, Ibidem, p.32-38.

4In order to regulate the devotional practices, namely the prayer of forty hours, Pope Clement XI wrote, in 1705, the "Instruction" Pro XL Oratione Horarum, This document expressed rules such as: covering the church’s door with a cloth to prevent the Holy Sacrament to be seen from the street; proposing a pompous decoration for the whole church and, in particular, for the main altarpiece; placing, at least, twenty candles to be burned in front of Holy Sacrament and removing all images and relics. If fixed, they had to be veiled. The same document established that the thrones should be covered with a white cloth6. Alongside with a major transformation of the Portuguese altarpieces, a new kind of paintings seemed to emerge, that was easily adapted to less rigorous interpretations of the main post-Tridentine papal document.

Fig. 1 Altar painting: overview of the main altarpiece of the church of Santo Ildefonso (Porto)

Fig. 1 Altar painting: overview of the main altarpiece of the church of Santo Ildefonso (Porto)

Altarpiece exhibiting the painting.

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

Fig. 2 Altar painting: overview of the main altarpiece of the church of Santo Ildefonso (Porto)

Fig. 2 Altar painting: overview of the main altarpiece of the church of Santo Ildefonso (Porto)

Altarpiece without the painting.

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

  • 7 CALVO MANUEL, A., Conservación y restauracion de pintura sobre lienzo, Barcelona, Ediciones del Ser (...)

5The existence of precedents that could have also contributed to the origin of this type of painting are the sargas present in Spain since the 15th century or the tüchlein in Germany and the Netherlands. This type of large painting was normally executed in tempera, directly on the textile support or on a thin ground layer.7

6The altar paintings usually occupied the interior surface of the altarpieces’ niches and were hidden whenever was required to reveal the throne or the images inside, according to liturgical moments.

Fig. 3 The high altar of church of São Pedro de Miragaia (Porto)

Fig. 3 The high altar of church of São Pedro de Miragaia (Porto)

Detail of the interior of the niche with the painting rolled.

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

7This action is made possible by the existence of a winding and setting system inside the niche comprising one or two wood axis on which the timber support is wound/unwound when actuated, mechanically or manually, through a string.

Fig. 4 Winding/unwinding systems

Rope detail that triggers the display of the main altarpiece of the church of São Nicolau (Porto)

Fig. 5 Winding/unwinding systems

The mechanism of the church of Nossa Senhora do Terço e da Caridade (Porto).

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

8The importance of a metal bar (or other material provided it has the necessary weight) on the bottom margin is considerable. It contributes to maintain some tension on the canvas, avoiding the deformation of the support. This element also helps the painting’s winding/unwinding movement, keeping it stable, especially with the presence of side rails or vertical guides fixed on the retable structure, as can be seen in the church of São José das Taipas (Porto).

Fig. 6 Detail of the metal bar inserted on the vertical guides

Fig. 6 Detail of the metal bar inserted on the vertical guides

Church of São José das Taipas (Porto).

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

9In the church of Lapa (Porto) the guide system comprises small metallic spheres inside that are connected by a wire to the canvas margins. This arrangement reinforces the function performed by the metal bar on the base, keeps the tension in the entire painting and improves contact with the retable structure.

  • 8  RESENDE, M., “Restauro da pintura de Eliseu Visconti [1866-1944] ‘A influência das artes na civili (...)

10This type of paintings integrates a wider concept of drama and dynamic movement in the liturgy. Usually it is executed on a large, non-tensioned and mobile fabric that hides other works of art, thus creating an interesting scenic effect. This result strongly resembles the panos de boca that were frequent in Brazilian theatres, where the painting, generally stretched, was connected to a lift mechanism that raised or lowered it during the openings and closures of theatrical acts.8

11In Spain, the altar paintings called bocaporte canvases were very common. They were used for the same purposes: to cover the retable structure, to hide sculptural sets, to reveal the Holy Sacrament, or simply to veil the altar when the images were in processional acts, according to the liturgical rites. These painted canvases had a major difference from the rolled Portuguese altar paintings because they were stretched and could be moved vertically, horizontally or on its own axis.

  • 9  Cf. SMITH, R., A talha em Portugal, Lisboa, Livros Horizonte, 1962, p.71.

12The altar paintings, also called panos de boca or de camarim, have a unique pedagogical character as they spread the word of God more dynamically than it was usual in the liturgical rituals. Being originally exposed during the major part of the liturgical year, they were only absent during Lent for the exposition of the Holy Sacrament or of sculptural groups. This leaded to a transformation of great visual impact on the sacred space.9 During this period, it was also a common practice to ornament all altars and images alluding to Christ's Passion through the profuse distribution of candles, torches and complex floral arrangements, with particular emphasis on the throne. The remaining spaces were concealed with purple or crimson cloths or curtains

Fig. 7 Transformation of scenic sacred spaces

Fig. 7 Transformation of scenic sacred spaces

Church of Nossa Senhora do Terço e da Caridade (Porto), profusely decorated with cloths, curtains and torches

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

Fig. 8 Transformation of scenic sacred spaces

Fig. 8 Transformation of scenic sacred spaces

Church of Campanhã (Porto) during Lent with all images and side altarpieces covered with purple cloth.

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

  • 10  PAMPLONA, A., Duas pinturas de altar de João Glama Stroberlle, Porto, Universidade Católica Portug (...)

13Although the altar paintings constituted rich iconographic, liturgical and artistic documents, as also, illustrated the theatricality ideal baroque, they fell into disuse in the late 20th century. This change in attitude was due to the evolution of Christian representations, on the disuse of the altarpiece’s functionalities, and, furthermore, to the advanced state of degradation evident in most specimens10. However, a large number persist, especially in the churches of northern Portugal.

A survey on the use of large rolled paintings in Portugal

  • 11  Cf. MOREIRA, R., Conservação e restauro da Crucificação da Igreja de Miragaia: as telas de rolo no (...)

14Based on the investigation and on the elaboration of an inventory of seventy-six rolled paintings identified in Portugal, during the work for the Master's Thesis in Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage – Specialization in Painting11, it is concluded that its use, undoubtedly, predominates on the northern part of the country. The majority was found on the main altarpieces of churches and chapels.

Fig. 9 Rolled paintings in Portugal

Fig. 9 Rolled paintings in Portugal

Map of Portugal with the location of the churches that have rolled paintings.

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

15The most common subject in religious Portuguese context had a sacred-figurative nature, being the representations of Jesus Christ the most frequent (Ascension, Baptism, Circumcision, Crucifixion, Last Supper). Representations of the Virgin and Saints (Mater Omnium, Visitation, Ascension and Coronation) were the following subjects.

  • 12  Cf. PAMPLONA, A., Ob. cit.

16Reputed painters executed such type of paintings. The inventory work revealed that in the principal city of the North, Porto, from the middle of the 18th century, dominated the hand of João Glama Ströberlle (1708-1792)12. Other artists of the same period included Pascoal Parente († 1796) and João Baptista Ribeiro (1790-1868). Pedro Alexandrino (1730-1810) was another important artist that worked from the city capital, Lisbon, and produced several works to North districts such as, Porto and Vila Real. Later, in the 19th century Joaquim Rafael (1783-1864. a disciple of Vieira Portuense), executed a large number of altar paintings and the tradition persisted on João António Correia (1822-1896) throughout the beginning of the 20th century with António José da Costa (1840-1929), Júlio Costa, Marques de Oliveira (1853-1927), José Malhoa (1855-1933), German Iglesias (1884-1955) and Fernando do Rosário (1950).

17From a total universe of seventy-six altar paintings surveyed throughout the country, about 67% belonged to altarpieces that hosted the largest formats and provided simultaneously great emphasis to the works due to the position they occupied in the architectural space. Although many works belonging to the lateral altars still exist, those currently active are quite rare. The majority remains hidden from the public for decades, disassembled or simply adapted to other systems. Some winding systems were destroyed by posterior interventions in order to adapt them to new spaces or to conform to changes on liturgical rituals. The lateral altar paintings of the church of São Pedro de Azevedo (Porto) and of the church of Campanhã (Porto) were stretched in posterior interventions and kept aside of their origin altars, constituting examples of such alterations.

Conservation issues of large rolled paintings

18
Any action upon an altar painting is a huge challenge, for which it is essential to possess a deep understanding of the cultural and religious meanings that contextualise it and obtain an exhaustive study of the materials and construction techniques originally used. Due to large dimensions, heavy weight, non-tensioned and mobile nature, a thoughtful planning of the various intervention stages is required to minimize the difficulties of manipulation. The main compromise relies on the preservation of the original creation concept – a mobile painting – the material characteristics and degradation processes and the current function of the work. The original purpose of the work influences the treatment proposal, the selection of materials to be used and the methodology followed during conservation process.  

19The specific deterioration features occurring on this type of paintings should be emphasised. These include predominance in directional deformation of the textile support caused by the cyclic winding on the wood shaft and the lack of tension. The result is a severe pattern of horizontal crack lines, large tears and support losses.

Fig. 10 Deformations of the textile support

Fig. 10 Deformations of the textile support

Condition before intervention where horizontal deformations and large tears are clear. Painting Adoração do Santíssimo Sacramento belonging to the church of São Nicolau (Porto).

Credit: CCR – Centre of Conservation and Restoration of the Portuguese Catholic University.

20The support’s own weight and the existence of frequent seams aggravate the support fragility. The metallic elements used in the setting of the canvas to the wood axis also cause localized deformations on the textile backing. Profuse cracking networks, severe abrasion and numerous losses on the painting surface are common occurrences. Apart from the characteristic signs of deterioration, accidental tears and losses are recurrent due work’ mobile nature, constantly subjected to human manipulation.

21The diameter of the shaft usually made of wood and on which the paint is rolled, should be directly related to the work’s dimension. Shaft’s diameter should be as large as possible in order to reduce the number of turns of the screen over itself, the weight and inherent friction and, consequently, the risk of cracking and detachment. However, most of the existing wooden shafts in the rolled paintings of Portugal, while still remaining stable and in good condition, have unfavourable dimensions for the preservation of the works of art. In such cases, and where the altarpiece of origin permits, it is advisable to replace the axis for a larger one or, if possible, adapt it and increase its diameter.

22The passage of the painting on more than one axis, as in the Crucifixion of the church of São Pedro de Miragaia (Porto), should be avoided, as the painting is subject to a double flection that causes strains in both directions of the winding.

Fig. 11 Rolling System

Fig. 11 Rolling System

Detail of the winding system of the Crucifixion of the church of São Pedro de Miragaia (Porto).

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

23Eventually, in these cases, the axis that approximates the painting to the altarpiece’s mouth could be supressed and the remainder installed closer to the first one. It is advisable to roll the painting with the paint layer facing out. However when the original system sets an inward rolling, that should not be changed. It has to be taken into account the physical memory of the painting and the dramatic change of the original structure that must be respected foremost.

  • 13  RIPOLLÉS LENGUA, V., “La “Visión de España” de Sorolla en New York. Historia de un viaje”, InCongr (...)

24The handling, packaging and transport of large format works, as are usually the rolled paintings, require specific infrastructure and qualified and perfectly coordinated work teams.13 The difficulty of access to the interior of the niches, the fragility of the systems or the poor conditions of the winding system has to be taken in consideration. During treatment, the work space and the processes must be adapted to their particular nature.

25The large format, lack of tension and their weightiness turns simple tasks as handling into difficult processes. On planning conservation treatments it should be taken in account the minimal number of dislocations. It should be considered the implementation of systems that enable to place the painting on the vertical plane and supported by a sound-backing surface. Intervention stages, such as the inpainting phase requires a planar and stable surface with proper angle for the illumination. However, constraints due large dimensions of the work or due limitations of the work space can determine alternatives such as the use of light cylinders to roll and unroll the painting. The utilization of two cylinders of considerable diameter on both edges of the painting allows working by stages and avoids occupying large areas of the studio.  

26Whenever possible, the total reinforcement of the textile support with a lining treatment or with interleaves should be avoided. That implies a considerable increase of the final weight, difficult the rolling and unrolling movements and enlarge the volume of roll. Partial reinforcements of the tears and the textile gaps should be considered and can result effective. When lining is required, a finer canvas can be selected. The choice of adhesives is also another important issue as it is needed flexibility and good adhesion. For support reinforcements and for fillers, the adhesives used must be able to accompany the cyclic movements.

  • 14  RIPOLLÉS LENGUA, V., Ob. cit., p.229.

27The winding of any painting for transportation, storage or travel, must be made on a clean, flat surface, with the painting facing down and with a tissue of synthetic fibres, sturdy and free of acids such as Reemay® or Tyvek®, to isolate the pictorial surface of the work’s reverse. It is important to overlap a spongy material that protects the painting’s bulkier areas and can act as a cushion against vibrations and impacts during transportation, as well as provides protection against its own weight and friction. For example, Volara® foam, assures great flexibility, strength and thermal insulation. Thus, the set will have three layers, with the painting in the middle. It should be rolled onto PVC or cardboard cylinders, being the latter equally resistant but lighter.14 Their diameter may vary according to the dimensions of the works, but they should not be less than 30 cm. The cylinder may also be previously coated with the same material of synthetic fibres.

28While rolled paintings specifically remain stored, the metal bar must be removed, as it is a quite heavy element that could compress and damage the canvas. Likewise, they must be placed in suspension, supported only by the ends of the shaft to prevent its deformation.
When altar paintings return to their original place, the movement of the work should be of exceptional character, limiting its winding to situations where it is strictly required, in accordance with the liturgical rituals. The church of Santo Ildefonso (Porto) adopted an elaborate and ingenious system based on a metallic stretcher, with automatic tension adjustment, moved by a complex automatic circuit. Although not the original, this engine combines some advantages, namely the permanent tension of the canvas and the softness of the process of ascension/descent of the work through the installation of the automatic circuit and the use of compression springs to support the vertical discharge.

Fig. 12 – Automatic circuit

Fig. 12 – Automatic circuit

Detail of the automatic circuit adapted to the painting of the church of Santo Ildefonso (Porto).

Credit: © Rita Moreira.

29
Conclusion

Altar paintings constitute important elements to understand the evolution of Christian rituals. Therefore the original concept and the liturgical, functional, historical and artistic context should be preserved.

30During the current investigation we found ourselves with a rueful devaluation of this type of paintings. The current liturgical practices along with the degradation of numerous works contributed to the disuse of such altar screens.

  • 15  BRUQUETAS GALÁN, R., “Conservación preventiva en lugares de culto: pintura de caballete”, In Conse (...)

31However, due to their specificity, unique features and the importance they had been allocated in the past, we hope to draw attention on them and contribute for a better knowledge and appreciation of such specimens, expressed by the dynamics of movement, well proliferated in Portugal but so rare throughout the rest of the world. In this sense, we emphasize the importance to respect specific methodologies that are in accordance with the material and functional requirements of such paintings. Works of art belonging to cult spaces have the particularity of maintain their sacred, functional and artistic qualities but also to establish profound relations with spiritual values of human activities, namely devotional and liturgical ones. Conservation approach has to deal with the immaterial meaning attributed to the work, which differs from a museum context15 and take that in consideration during treatment operations. An intervention on an altar painting must look for the original nature of the work, its liturgical and decorative program, avoiding alterations of its function (its mechanism, included) and context.             

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Notes

1  ZIELINSKI, D. M. J., Spazio litúrgico e arte sacra, Padova, Pontificia Commissione per i Beni Culturali Della Chiesa, In http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_commissions/pcchc/documents/ rc_com_pcchc_20070521_spazio-liturgico_it.html.

2  GUERRA, A., RODRIGUEZ, C., História do Cristianismo: guia Ilustrado, Venda Nova, Bertrand Editora, 1995, p.152.

3  PEREIRA, P., Arte portuguesa: história essencial, Lisboa, Círculo de Leitores, 2011, p.345.

4  FIGUEIREDO, P., “A herança artística da Companhia de Jesus”, In São Francisco Xavier: a sua vida e o seu tempo (1506-1552), Lisboa, Cordoaria Nacional, Comissariado Geral das comemorações do V centenário do nascimento de S. Francisco Xavier, 2006, p.204.

5  IDEM, Ibidem, p.23.

6  IDEM, Ibidem, p.32-38.

7 CALVO MANUEL, A., Conservación y restauracion de pintura sobre lienzo, Barcelona, Ediciones del Serbal, 2002, p.87 e 88.

8  RESENDE, M., “Restauro da pintura de Eliseu Visconti [1866-1944] ‘A influência das artes na civilização’ – 1908 - Pano de boca do Teatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro”, Boletim ADCR – Obras de conjunto, nº10/11, 2001, p.56.

9  Cf. SMITH, R., A talha em Portugal, Lisboa, Livros Horizonte, 1962, p.71.

10  PAMPLONA, A., Duas pinturas de altar de João Glama Stroberlle, Porto, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, p.1. In http://citar.artes.ucp.pt/mtpnp/estudos/pintura_altar_01_contexto_historico.pdf

11  Cf. MOREIRA, R., Conservação e restauro da Crucificação da Igreja de Miragaia: as telas de rolo nos retábulos portugueses., [S.l.: s.n.], Dissertação de Mestrado em «Conservação e Restauro de Bens Culturais – Pintura» apresentada na Escola das Artes da Universidade Católica Portuguesa.

12  Cf. PAMPLONA, A., Ob. cit.

13  RIPOLLÉS LENGUA, V., “La “Visión de España” de Sorolla en New York. Historia de un viaje”, InCongresso Internacional de Restauración de Pinturas sobre Lienzo de Gran Formato. Valencia: Editorial Universitat Politèctica de València, 2010, p.229.

14  RIPOLLÉS LENGUA, V., Ob. cit., p.229.

15  BRUQUETAS GALÁN, R., “Conservación preventiva en lugares de culto: pintura de caballete”, In Conservación preventiva en lugares de culto: actas de las jornadas celebradas en el Instituto del Patrimonio Cultural de España, Madrid, Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, 2009, p.61 e 62.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 Altar painting: overview of the main altarpiece of the church of Santo Ildefonso (Porto)
Légende Altarpiece exhibiting the painting.
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 464k
Titre Fig. 2 Altar painting: overview of the main altarpiece of the church of Santo Ildefonso (Porto)
Légende Altarpiece without the painting.
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 524k
Titre Fig. 3 The high altar of church of São Pedro de Miragaia (Porto)
Légende Detail of the interior of the niche with the painting rolled.
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 348k
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 96k
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 120k
Titre Fig. 6 Detail of the metal bar inserted on the vertical guides
Légende Church of São José das Taipas (Porto).
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 292k
Titre Fig. 7 Transformation of scenic sacred spaces
Légende Church of Nossa Senhora do Terço e da Caridade (Porto), profusely decorated with cloths, curtains and torches
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 620k
Titre Fig. 8 Transformation of scenic sacred spaces
Légende Church of Campanhã (Porto) during Lent with all images and side altarpieces covered with purple cloth.
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 248k
Titre Fig. 9 Rolled paintings in Portugal
Légende Map of Portugal with the location of the churches that have rolled paintings.
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 92k
Titre Fig. 10 Deformations of the textile support
Légende Condition before intervention where horizontal deformations and large tears are clear. Painting Adoração do Santíssimo Sacramento belonging to the church of São Nicolau (Porto).
Crédits Credit: CCR – Centre of Conservation and Restoration of the Portuguese Catholic University.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 360k
Titre Fig. 11 Rolling System
Légende Detail of the winding system of the Crucifixion of the church of São Pedro de Miragaia (Porto).
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 308k
Titre Fig. 12 – Automatic circuit
Légende Detail of the automatic circuit adapted to the painting of the church of Santo Ildefonso (Porto).
Crédits Credit: © Rita Moreira.
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3186/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 260k
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Rita Macedo Moreira, « Conservation issues of large rolled paintings on the Portuguese altarpieces », CeROArt [En ligne], EGG 3 | 2013, mis en ligne le 09 mai 2013, consulté le 18 novembre 2017. URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/3186

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Auteur

Rita Macedo Moreira

MA in Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage – Specialization in Painting, at the Catholic University of Portugal. (2012). BA in Art – Conservation and Restoration at the Catholic University of Portugal. (2008). Painting Conservator at the Center of Conservation and Restoration of the Catholic University of Portugal, since 2009. ritamacedomoreira@gmail.com| rmmoreira@porto.ucp.pt

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CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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