Navigation – Plan du site
Dossier

Cold Lining and Mist Lining: insights and possibilities of adaptation to the mediterranean climate

Daniele Costantini

Résumés

Cet article se concentre sur le Cold Lining (doublage à froid) et son développement le plus important, le Mist Lining (doublage par vaporisation), technique proposée par J. V. Och. La recherche bibliographique sur les adhésifs utilisé dans le Mist Lining et le comparatif des tests de pelage ont été effectuée à l'Université d'Urbino; ils ont été suivi par un traitement de conservation, confirmant la possibilité d'adapter la technique du Mist Lining aux besoins du climat méditerranéen, en substituant les solvants et les adhésifs utilisés par J.V.Och sans aucune perte d'efficacité.

Haut de page

Texte intégral

Introduction

1This paper examines one of the last century’s most important innovations in restoration: the Cold Lining technique. Mist lining, a method of Cold Lining invented by Jos Van Och in Amsterdam in the nineteen nineties could be seen as the logical extension in terms of research of this technique. The paper analyses Mist Lining and compares it with Mehra’s Cold Lining, pointing out its main innovations and, using research carried out at the University of Urbino, suggests a modification of the technique and of the materials used to suit the specific climatic conditions in Mediterranean countries.

Historical origins of Cold Lining

2The Greenwich Conference in 1974 is a milestone for Cold Lining, for while research in the method had been going on for some time, only the platform provided by such a conference was able to launch the new technique at an international level.

3For the first time practitioners solidly rooted in traditional methods were placed side by side with conservators such as Mehra, Tassinari, Urbani, Prescott, Boissonas and Fieux aiming to open the field to new ideas.

4Mehra described the rich cultural context of those years and the clear need to undertake new research in conservation in the following words:

  • 1 VILLERS, C., Lining paintings : papers from the Greenwich conference on comparative lining techniqu (...)

“When we survey the literature on the subject published during the past decade (with special reference to the most recent contribution in research including systematic studies of problems by C. Wolters, G. Urbani, S. Rees-Jones, E. Tassinari , R. Buck, A. Boissonas e G. A. Berger) we realize that certain dangers were involved in much of what we have been doing so far. This then obliges us to modify our approach to relining process accordingly and we have to look for proper alternatives.”1

5Greenwich was, thus, the starting point for a process of revision and renewal which is still taking place in conservation. However, at the same time and in the same forum that Mehra was expounding his views, participants would also have heard the words of supporters of traditional lining methods, such as Philip Robinson, a member of the Association of British Picture Restorers:

“There is no doubt that at the present time and for the majority of pictures, wax-composition lining gives the most satisfactory results…”

6This process of renewal initiated at Greenwich concerned not only the techniques involved in lining and the adoption of the then latest synthetic materials as supports (Polyester sailcloth fabric) and adhesives (Beva 371, Plextol B500), but also a more complex understanding of what up to then had been the approach to restoration.

Traditional techniques and the renewal proposed by Mehra

  • 2 MEHRA, V.R., “Comparative Study of Conventional Relining Methods and Materials and Research Towards (...)

7The first ten years following the Greenwich Conference were marked by many studies aimed at showing how previous lining practices had been as a source of numerous risks and damage for artworks2.

  • 3 BERGER, G.A., “Weave interference in vacuum lining of paintings”, Studies in Conservation11, 1966, (...)
  • 4 The studies published in GORETTI, M., PRESENTI, N., VERDELLI, M., “Il controllo delle temperature n (...)

8The traditional use of ironing was blamed as being one of the major causes of the criticized phenomenon of “imprinting”3 canvases, of flattening of the painted surfaces, as well as the degradation of the artistic qualities of works due to unregulated application of pressure and heat4.

  • 5 Widely used in glue-paste linings and during consolidation treatments.
  • 6 MAKES, F., HALLSTROM, B.S., “Remarks on relining”,Kungl Konsthogskolan, Royal Academy Art School, 1 (...)

9The use of organic substances5 at relative humidity of 70-80% was identified as the cause of rapid deterioration of materials due to the attack by fungi and moulds6.

  • 7 BONFORD, D., STANIFORTH, S., “Wax Resin Lining and colour change: an evaluation”, National Gallery (...)
  • 8 BERGER, G.A., ZELIGER, H.I., “Detrimental and irreversible Effect of Wax Impregnation on Easel Pain (...)

10The wax resin technique led to the yellowing of the artwork7, a decrease in its pH, the softening of the paint film and the weakening of the structure of the painting8.

11An example of this can be seen in the disastrous consequences of the wax resin lining carried out in 1934 on Mantegna’s tempera paintings at Hampton Court and on Raphael’s works at the Victoria and Albert Museum, with the darkening of the works due to a change in their refractive index.

12Furthermore, the reversibility of traditional techniques was compromised by the deep penetration of the adhesive inside a painting’s structure. It was indeed this aspect which stimulated Mehra to concentrate on developing techniques which would limit the influence a lining had on future treatments and guarantee good reversibility for any added materials.

  • 9 Term introduced by Barbara Appelbaum in 1987.

13Thus, in substance, improvements of reversibility can be understood as “retreatability”9: the possibility to re-intervene on an artwork which has already been restored, leaving unchanged its treatment possibilities. To clarify the issue we can see in the Italian Restoration Charter (1972 – article 8):

“Every intervention should be carried out in a manner and using techniques and materials to ensure that, in the future, new interventions for the safeguarding and conservation of the original will be possible if needed.”

  • 10 MEHRA, V.R., “ Further Developments in Cold Lining (Nap – Bond System)”, ICOM Committee for Conserv (...)

14The decision to thicken Plextol10 and to apply it exclusively to the lining canvas was a decisive step in the improvement of reversibility: the adhesive was to act solely as a bridge between the two canvases. The nap bond system in this sense definitely contributed to the improving of the containment of the adhesive layer as well as also reducing the quantity of adhesive used.

  • 11 MEHRA, V.R., “ Further Developments in Cold Lining (Nap – Bond System)”, ICOM Committee for Conserv (...)

15We might briefly comment here on the quantities involved here: 70 g/m2 of adhesive applied to a propylene canvas weighing 230 g/m2 added 300 g/m2  to each square metre of original canvas. This information, of little interest on its own, gains greatly in significance when compared with the increases in weight resulting from lining with glue-paste or wax-resin, respectively four and nine times heavier per square metre than the Cold Lining of Mehra11.

16Reduced weight means less force is needed to stretch the canvas on the stretcher, thereby reducing the stress on the canvas.

  • 12 Percentages refer to data obtained from: LAROCHE, J., SACCARELLO, M. V., “La foderatura dei dipinti (...)
  • 13  Lining with glue-paste also uses an water-based adhesive for facing the painting which is made up (...)

17Another distinctive feature of Mehra’s technique is that no water is applied to the canvas, the opposite of the glue-paste technique, where roughly 64-65% of the adhesive’s volume12 is water, which must evaporate when in contact with the painting to form the adhesive bond13.

18In Cold Lining, the creation of an adhesive dry film and its reactivation by non-polar solvents has led to the complete elimination of water during the lining process.

  • 14 Approximately 0.033 bar – 0.034 kg/cm2 in Mehra’s Cold Lining.

19One of the indispensable tools which has led to the achievements listed above as well as the elimination of heat is the low-pressure suction table. Its huge contribution stems from its ability to form an adhesive join through the aspiration of the reactivation vapour under conditions of controlled pressure14, both in terms of the quantity and the distribution of the pressure.

  • 15 MEHRA, V.R., “Nap-bond Cold Lining on a low pressure table”, Maltechnik Restauro, 1975, Vol.81, Num (...)
  • 16 PRESCOTT, P., “The lining cycle”, Conference of ICOM on comparative lining techniques, Greenwich Na (...)

20The invention of Cold Lining is only one of Mehra’s achievements. He should not only be remembered for his intense practical research but also for the theoretical consequences of his work. The development of a valid system for partially lining only the borders of a painting (strip-lining) as well as the separation into two distinct phases of the treatments15 of lining and consolidation, were two clear signs of Mehra’s sensitivity to the well-known invasiveness of lining treatment. This conscious sense of responsibility is in perfect harmony with Percival Prescott’s view, when, in 1974, he spoke for the first time of the “lining cycle”16, an irreversible process that obliges future conservators to repeat lining treatments due to the degradation of the materials employed.

21The moral obligation to try to put off the start of the lining cycle is derived from these concepts.

The issues faced in Mist Lining

22For almost thirty years the studies conducted by Mehra have not had any significant developments and there have been few publications on Cold Lining, despite his creation of a lining system open to change.

  • 17 VAN OCH, J., HOPPENBROUWERS, R., "Mist-lining and low-pressure envelopes: an alternative lining met (...)
  • 18  The author learned about the method through bibliographic research and participation at a workshop (...)

23However, a pleasing note in the field of conservation research is provided by the studies initiated in the nineteen nineties by Jos Van Och17 in the company SRAL (Stiching Restauratie Atelier Limburg) in Maastricht. The result of this research was the creation of the method called "Mist Lining", which brought about important modifications to Mehra's technique regarding the method and the materials used18.

  • 19 The system is made up of four interchangeable perforated tubes which follow the painting’s perimete (...)

24The principles of Mist Lining adhere very closely to what Mehra stated about the use of heat, water, pressure, the abolition of operating standards and the use of separate phases for different treatments. However, some practical changes, such as the substitution of a low pressure table with an alternative system,19 have made Cold Lining large format paintings more feasible. Other improvements have reinforced the theoretical principles of Cold Lining, the most important being the calibration of adhesive strength used in lining. Mehra solved this problem by the use of different perforated screens (the nap bond system) without evaluating the use of various mixtures of different adhesives, which is the approach used in Mist Lining.

  • 20 Under low pressure conditions

25The preparation of the canvas in Mist Lining is particularly important. Normally, Jos Van Och uses canvases made from natural materials with a relatively low thread count, for reasons related to the reactivation process, which we will discuss later. Depending on the level of flexibility required in the lining canvas, the size may or may not be removed from the canvas by washing in water. The same criterion is used to decide whether to stretch the lining canvas on a temporary stretcher or to just limit the stretching to  simply attaching the ends of the canvas to the stretcher. For example, if the painting is not completely flat, but is slightly deformed, we could decide to remove the sizing from the lining canvas and to subject it to only light stretching so that during the formation of the adhesive bond20 the auxiliary supporting canvas will be able to assume the same shape as that of the original support.

  • 21 The pressure used to spray the adhesive is 1.8 mbar.
  • 22 Jos Van Och uses 1% of Rohagit SD15 (Kremer).

26The preparatory phase of the lining canvas concludes with the rubbing of the surface using abrasive paper to raise the fibres of the canvas perpendicular to the plane they normally lie in. The lining resins are not applied using Mehra’s spatulas and perforated screens but rather with an industrial spray gun fuelled by compressed air21 in a similar way to the method used by Berger with Beva371. The adhesive is thickened22, loaded into the spray gun’s tank and sprayed in several coats as required, applied alternately in different directions (horizontal, vertical, horizontal) and held precisely at an inclination of 30 – 45° to the canvas, so as the pressure of the jet does not flatten the raised canvas fibres. Furthermore, this technique means that the adhesive mist does not usually penetrate to the reverse side of the canvas through the weave of the cloth, and thus the cloud of resin and solvent droplets remains on the side of the canvas where the adhesive is being applied. This in turn makes it easier to control the quantities of material delivered by spray, and thus helps to reduce the quantity of resin dispersion released in the air..

  • 23 The exit hole in the nozzle is from 0.8 to 2 mm in diameter, with two parallel side holes on either (...)

27The very fine droplets of the adhesive cloud (from which the technique takes the name Mist Lining) produced by the spray23 are deposited around the raised fibres of the lining canvas creating a thread-like adhesive structure (ill. 1 and 2) rather than the denser network of dots produced by the nap bond system (ill. 3).

Fig. 1 Visual effect of treatment with mist lining's technique

Fig. 1 Visual effect of treatment with mist lining's technique

Detail of front of lining canvas

Photographic credits: Jos Van Och, René Hoppernbrouwers

 Fig. 2 The adhesive is deposited around the fibers of lining canvas (mist lining's technique)

 Fig. 2 The adhesive is deposited around the fibers of lining canvas (mist lining's technique)

Detail of a cross-section of the lining canvas with adhesive.

Photographic credits: Jos Van Och, Renè Hoppernbrouwers

Fig. 3 The adhesive layer in Mehra's cold lining

Fig. 3 The adhesive layer in Mehra's cold lining

Nap Bond System – Nap bond system: detail of a screen and a grid of dots of adhesive

Photographic credits: J.M.M.Martinez; S.M.Ray

28The method results in an open structure with a wavy appearance.

29From a physical-chemical aspect, the increased penetration of the resin into the lining canvas increases the adhesion between the canvas and the adhesive layer compared with the bond between the lining and original canvases.

30The excellent reversibility of Mist Lining was verified during the workshop by simulating de-lining on canvas samples lined by Van Och some years previously. The low level of visible residues confirmed the limited retention of resin on the back of painting. Nonetheless the strength of the join seems adequate to ensure the correct conservation of paintings.

31Mist lining also revises the technique of reactivation of the dry adhesive used by Mehra  by substituting toluene as the solvent with isopropyl alcohol for smaller paintings, and a 1:4 mixture of Shellsol and isopropyl alcohol for large paintings, so as to provide greater reactivation.

32Further, reactivation in Mist Lining is no longer achieved by spraying solvent directly on the surface, but rather by the slow release of a solvent. Usually, an open weave cloth, such as cheese cloth, is rolled up evenly and placed in an industrial strength plastic film. The canvas is then saturated with solvent by injecting it under the film and placing the cloth and its cover under a press to distribute the solvent evenly through the cloth.

33The solvent-damp cheese cloth is then unrolled on the back of the lining canvas, which has already been placed on the original canvas. The three layers (painting – lining canvas – reactivation cloth) are placed under low pressure for a time varying according to the dimensions of the painting and the volume of solvents used. The solvent vapour flows through the lining canvas, with the process of reactivation of the Plextol starting not at the part in contact with the original canvas (as occurs with Mehra’s technique), but in the interior of the lining canvas, progressing outwards towards the painting at the end of the process.

34Once the adhesive is reactivated, the cloth with solvent is removed to allow the formation of the adhesive join between the painting and lining canvas. This method, apart from increasing the efficiency of the reactivation, reduces the level of solvent released in the air, improving the working environment.

  • 24 FRAME, K., WEBSTER COOK, S., “Solvent activated dry film lining, preliminary test for the lining of (...)

35The amount of solvent used by Jos Van Och (40-60ml/m2) is very low compared with the ideal volume of 400 ml of solvent proposed by K. Frame and S. W. Cook24 (Art Gallery of Ontario) for the reactivation of a square meter of cloth cold lined with double the quantity of adhesive (145 g) used by Mehra.

Analysis of some physical-chemical characteristics of Mist Lining adhesives.

36Another important change introduced by Mist Lining to Cold Lining is the substitution of Plextol B500 with a binary compound: Plextol D360 and D540. The decision to use two adhesives was determined by the need to regulate the strength of adhesion.

37Fig. 4 lists the glass transition temperature (Tg), the minimum film forming temperature (MFT) and pH of the products used by Van Och and Mehra, based on the information provided by their data sheets.

Fig. 4 Comparison between experimental results of mist lining and cold lining

Fig. 4 Comparison between experimental results of mist lining and cold lining

Graph 1 The X-axis shows the quantity of solvent used (ml/m2), while the Y-axis has the values for the adhesive force in g/inch using Plextol B500. The lines refer to the experiments of Hedley and Phenix while the dots show the average results of tests carried out in Urbino.

Photographic credits: Daniele Costantini

38As we can see, the values of glass transition are very different, with Plextol D360 having the lowest.

  • 25 HORIE, C.V., Materials for Conservation, 2010, Amsterdam, Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann

39Due to the close links between Tg and Young’s modulus25, Plextol D360 should have an extremely low elastic modulus. Hence, we expect that at room temperature the resin should be sticky and soft, which would suggest that the resin would migrate towards the paint layer. Furthermore, low Tg polymers have viscous creep, leading to the extension and distortion of the adhesive joins. Finally, as Horie suggests, it is always better to choose a resin with a Tg higher than the temperature of the surroundings.

40All products should have pH values within the safe range (pH 4.5-10). However, it is important to note that the values in the table may differ significantly from one chemical supplier to another. Plextol D360, sold by Kremer, is a clear example of such a variation, with a pH between 2 and 3. Such a strong acidity requires the dispersion to be buffered with a base before mixing it with Plextol D540.

41This examination of the MTF and Tg data suggests that the two products ought to be used together rather than separately.Jos Van Och generally uses a minimum of 30% of Plextol D360, but increases the percentage when there is need of greater adhesive strength.

  • 26 FELLER, R.L., “Thoughts about cross linking”, WAAC Newsletters, 2008, Vol.30, Number 3, pp.16 - 20
  • 27 The increase in movement is linked to a rise in the kinetic energy of the polymer’s molecules.
  • 28 In 1989, M. Shilling showed that Butvar B-79 could only cross-link at a temperature higher than its (...)

42In the light of the above discussion, it is reasonable to ask what the possible effect might be of using Plextol D360 – even in a mixture – in a hot climate like that in Italy. The risks are clearly those already mentioned earlier: loss of strength at the adhesive join, possible migration of the resin to the painted surface and a decrease in reversibility26. It is also well known that the higher the Tg, the greater freedom of movement polymers have27 due to the sliding of their chains, and their random moving closer to each other significantly increases the chances of cross linking28.

43In order to avoid these perhaps unacceptable risks, Antonio Iaccarino Idelson proposed some laboratory tests during the practical part of his university course.

The adaptation of Mist Lining to italian climatic conditions

44A number of peeling tests were carried out in the laboratories of the University of Urbino “Carlo Bo” on samples of canvas lined with the Mist Lining technique using Plextol B500, in order to compare the effectiveness of three different solvent combinations for adhesive reactivation: pure methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), pure isopropyl alcohol (IA) and a mixture of the two. The parameters of pressure, time and solvent volume used remained the same as those employed by Jos Van Och for Mist Lining. Particular attention was given to MEK, as it is among the best solvents for Plextol B500, both used pure and in a 50% mixture IA.

45After the two components of the samples (a “lining canvas” and an “original”) had been adhered together, each sample was placed vertically, and known weights were gradually added to an edge of canvas until failure of the join occurred. Data was recorded both at the first moment the canvas began to separate and at the moment of the complete collapse of the adhesive join. Despite the changes in materials made to the original technique, very good results were obtained in terms of mechanical strength. The data were then compared to that obtained in studies carried out by A. Phenix and G. Hedley in 1984, where peeling tests were also carried out on samples created in laboratories.

46The purpose of the 1989 study was to highlight the change in the peeling force depending on the volume of solvent used, focussing on the effects on Plextol B500 and Primal AC634 in a comparison with the use of Teflon-silicon in the Fabri-Sil lining technique invented by Fieux. As the tests at Urbino were limited to Plextol B500, here we are only going to examine Phenix and Hedley’s data concerning this adhesive.

  • 29 The samples used for the peeling tests carried out in Urbino were made with linen canvas.

47The samples treated with the adhesives were created employing two types of synthetic lining textiles29 (polyester and polyester sailcloth) with three different types of preparation. The join was created through the reactivation of a dry layer of Plextol B500 with toluene and isopropyl alcohol (IA) under low pressure. The straight lines in the graph below indicate the two types of solvent used for the reactivation of Plextol B500: red is for toluene and blue is for IA.

Fig. 5 Physical and chemical characteristics of adhesive products

Fig. 5 Physical and chemical characteristics of adhesive products

All the products are acrylic dispersion

Photographic credits: Daniele Costantini

48These tests both confirm toluene’s greater efficiency compared to isopropyl alcohol and show that above a litre, a linear increase in volume of aromatic solvent does not correspond to a linear increase in peeling strength in the lined samples.

49The graph also contains the results of the peeling tests carried out in Urbino using MEK and IA: the red dot corresponds to a MEK-IA mixture (1:1v/v), the purple to pure MEK and the green to IA, each value having been obtained from the average of five tests.The best result, in terms of peeling’s strength, was achieved with the blend reactivation, MEK and IA.

50If we compare the 800g/inch strength achieved using the MEK-IA mixture with the same value along the dark red line (the toluene reactivation), we can see that Hedley and Phenix used almost 600 ml of toluene to achieve the same strength achieved with 60 ml of MEK-IA mixture via the Mist Lining technique. Mist lining with Plextol B500 reactivated with a MEK-IA mixture achieves a 90% reduction in solvent volume used compared to classic Cold Lining techniques without any loss of adhesive efficiency.

  • 30 The workshop on Mist Lining organized by SRAL and the experience of working on Titian's painting ha (...)

51Thus, the modifications reported here in the Mist Lining technique demonstrate the independence of this system from the original materials used by Jos Van Och, and show once again the possibility of replacing the aromatic solvents used by Mehra to reactivate Plextol B500. The preliminary tests carried out during the university course reported here have been continued and were adapted to a real case, the recently completed treatment of Titian’s painting David and Goliath 30 in Venice by Antonio Iaccarino Idelson and Carlo Serino, with the collaboration of Sandra Pesso. This project involved the adaptation of the technique to the requirements of the painting and its conservation context, in the spirit of Mehra and Van Och's work, involving an approach which sees the development of non-standard methodologies on the basis of a detailed understanding of the specific problems of a case in order to provide a solution which answers the individual needs of the work being treated.

Conclusion

52This study shows how we can develop new forms of Cold Lining on the basis of practical necessity or climatic conditions, such as those present in Italy, while at the same time adhering to Mehra’s original principles. The trial phase of the project, apart from confirming the flexibility of the Mist Lining technique in allowing the use of different materials (Plextol B500/MEK) in place of the original materials employed (Plextol D360-540/Toluene), also provided fundamental data for the successive lining of Titian’s David and Goliath. The success of this conservation treatment provided further confirmation of the studies which preceded it as well as concrete evidence for the extensive developmental possibilities still offered today by the method of Cold Lining.

Haut de page

Bibliographie

ACKROYD, P., “The Structural Conservation of Canvas Paintings: Changes in Attitude and Practice since the Early 1970s”, Reviews in Conservation, 2002, Number.3, pp. 3-14

ACKROID, P., BOMFORD D., “Question of Reversibility in the conservation of painting oncanvas”, Reversibility - does it exist?, British Museum Occasional Paper, 135, 1999, pp.53 - 62

APPELBAUM, B., “Criteria for treatment: reversibility”, Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 1987, Vol. 26, Number 2, Article 1, pp.65 - 73

BERGER, G.A., “Weave interference in vacuum lining of paintings”, Studies in Conservation 11, 1966, pp.80 - 170

BERGER, G.A., ZELIGER, H.I., “Detrimental and irreversible Effect of Wax Impregnation onEaselPainting, Meeting ICOM-CC of Venice, 1975, Paper Number 75/11/21

BONFORD, D., STANIFORTH, S.,Wax Resin Lining and colour change: an evaluation”, National Gallery Technical Bulletin, 1981, Vol. 5, pp. 65 - 69

BORGIOLI, L., CREMONESI, P., Le resine sintetiche usate nel trattamento delle opere policrome, Padua, il Prato Collana Talenti, 2005

BUZZEGOLI, E., KUNZELMAN, D., CIATTI, M., “Tecnichealternative per la conservazione dei dipinti su tela: l'esperienza del seminario di V.Mehra”, O.P.D restauro, 2003, Number 15, pp.128 - 135

CANNIZZARO, C., FRANCESCHINI, L., Un tavolo a bassa pressione suggerimenti per la sua realizzazione, Padua, Il Prato Collana talenti, 1999

CARMEN, F.B., The History of the Use of Synthetic Adhesive and Consolidant and Lining adhesives, WAAC Newsletter, 1986, Vol.8, Number 1, pp. 7 - 11

DELLA TORRE, S., Il rispetto dell’esistente e l’irreversibilità dell’azione”, Atti del convegno di Bressanone, 2003, pp.15 - 22

FAZI, B., VITTORINI, B., Nuove tecniche di foderatura, Florence, Nardini editore, 1995

FELLER, R.L., Thoughts about cross linking”, WAAC Newsletters, 2008, Vol.30, Number 3, pp.16 - 20

FRAME, K., WEBSTER COOK, S., “Solvent activated dry film lining, preliminary test for the lining of Girl in the fields by Arthur Shilling”, Art Gallery Ontario, unpublished, 1986

GORETTI, M., PRESENTI, N., VERDELLI, M.,“Il controllo delle temperature nel restauro delle opere d'arte: metodiche e innovazioni, tecniche”, Kermes, 1996, Vol. 9, Number 25, pp. 25 - 31

GORETTI, M., PRESENTI,N., VERDELLI, M., “Tecniche avanzate di sottovuoto nel restauro dei dipinti: ricerche, sperimentazioni, applicazioni”, Kermes, 2000, pp. 46 - 64

HACKE, B., “A low pressure apparatus for treatment of painting”, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 5th Triennial Meeting in Zagreb, 1978, pp.199 - 222

HORIE, C.V., Materials for Conservation, 2010, Amsterdam, Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann

KNIGHT, E., Tra non foderatura e uso ragionato degli adesivi da rifodero, Florence, Nardini Editore, 1994

LAROCHE, J., SACCARELLO, M.V., “La foderatura dei dipinti: due tradizioni a confronto”, Kermes, 1996, Number 25, pp.11 - 24

MAKES, F., HALLSTROM, B.S., “Remarks on relining”, Kungl Konsthogskolan, Royal Academy Art School, 1972, pp. 15 - 44

MATTENINI, M., MOLES, A., La chimica nel restauro, Florence, Nardini Editore, 2007

MECKLENBURG, M.F., “Meccanismi di cedimento dei dipinti su tela: approcci per lo sviluppo di protocolli di consolidamento, Padua,  Il Prato, Collana Talenti, 2008

MEHRA, V.R., Comparative Study of Conventional Relining Methods and Materials and Research Towards Their Improvement”, Interim Report, ICOM Conference, Committee for the Care of Paintings, 1972, p.29

MEHRA, V. R., “A Low-Pressure Cold-Relining Table, in Conference on Comparative Lining Techniques, National Maritime Museum Greenwich, London, 1974

MEHRA, V.R., “ Further Developments in Cold Lining (Nap – Bond System)”, ICOM Committee for Conservation, Working Committee for Stretchers and Lining, Venice, 1975

MEHRA, V.R., “Nap-bond Cold Lining on a low pressure table”, Maltechnik Restauro, 1975, Vol.81, Number 2, pp. 87 - 95

MEHRA, V.R., “Minimizing Strain and Stresses in Lining Canvas Painting”, ICOM, 6thTriennal Meeting, 1981, pp. 1 - 8

PHENIX, A., HEDLEY G., “Lining without heat or moisture”, ICOM Committee for Conservation, 7th Triennial Meeting, Copenhagen, 1984, Paper Number 84/2/38

POCIUS, A.V., “The Relationship of Surface Science and Adhesion Science, Adhesion and Adhesives Technology: an introduction”, Hanser Publishers, 1996, pag. 132-162

PRESCOTT, P., “The lining cycle”, Conference of ICOM on comparative lining techniques, Greenwich National Maritime Museum, 1974, pp. 1 - 46

ROBINSON, P., “The Development of Wax Composition Lining among the Members of the Association of British Picture Restores”, Conference of ICOM on comparative lining techniques, Greenwich National Maritime Museum, 1974, pp. 1 - 5

SCHILLING M., “The glass transition temperature of materials used in conservation”, Studies in Conservation, 1989, Number 34, pp. 110 - 116

SPERONI, P., “Uso ed evoluzione della tavola aspirante in Danimarca: materiali e metodi per minimizzare l'intervento conservativo”, atti del convegno del CESMAR7, 2005, pp. 37 - 44

URBANI, G., Problemi di conservazione, Bologna, Compositori, 1972

VAN OCH, J., HOPPENBROUWERS, R., "Mist-lining and low-pressure envelopes: an alternative lining method for the reinforcement of canvas paintings", Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung, 2003, Vo.17, Number 1, pp. 116 - 128

VILLERS, C., Lining paintings : papers from the Greenwich conference on comparative lining techniques, London, Archetype Publications, 2003

Haut de page

Notes

1 VILLERS, C., Lining paintings : papers from the Greenwich conference on comparative lining techniques, London, Archetype Publications, 2003.

2 MEHRA, V.R., “Comparative Study of Conventional Relining Methods and Materials and Research Towards Their Improvement”, Interim Report, ICOM Conference, Committee for the Care of Paintings, 1972, p.29, PHENIX, A., HEDLEY G., “Lining without heat or moisture”, ICOM Committee forConservation, 7th Triennial Meeting, Copenhagen, 1984, Paper Number 84/2/38, PRESCOTT, P., “The lining cycle”, Conference of ICOM on comparative lining techniques, Greenwich National Maritime Museum, 1974, pp. 1 – 46, URBANI, G., Problemi di conservazione, Bologna, Compositori, 1972

3 BERGER, G.A., “Weave interference in vacuum lining of paintings”, Studies in Conservation11, 1966, pp.80 - 170

4 The studies published in GORETTI, M., PRESENTI, N., VERDELLI, M., “Il controllo delle temperature nel restauro delle opere d'arte: metodiche e innovazioni, tecniche”, Kermes, Florence, 1996, Edifir,Vol.9, Number 25, pp. 25 – 31 underline the dangers linked to the use of irons in lining. Once the desired temperature is reached, the thermostat light turns off automatically, but as a result of thermal inertia, the temperature keeps rising until enough heat is exchanged between the iron and the canvas to stop this rise. Hence, the maximum temperature reached by irons is usually higher than that set by up to 25-30 °C.

5 Widely used in glue-paste linings and during consolidation treatments.

6 MAKES, F., HALLSTROM, B.S., “Remarks on relining”,Kungl Konsthogskolan, Royal Academy Art School, 1972, pp. 15 – 44.

7 BONFORD, D., STANIFORTH, S., “Wax Resin Lining and colour change: an evaluation”, National Gallery Technical Bulletin, 1981, Vol. 5, pp. 65 – 69.

8 BERGER, G.A., ZELIGER, H.I., “Detrimental and irreversible Effect of Wax Impregnation on Easel Painting”, Meeting ICOM-CC of Venice, 1975, Paper Number 75/11/21.

9 Term introduced by Barbara Appelbaum in 1987.

10 MEHRA, V.R., “ Further Developments in Cold Lining (Nap – Bond System)”, ICOM Committee for Conservation, Working Committee for Stretchers and Lining, Venice, 1975, MEHRA, V.R., “Comparative Study of Conventional Relining Methods and Materials and Research Towards Their Improvement”, Interim Report, ICOM Conference, Committee for the Care of Paintings, 1972, p.29.

11 MEHRA, V.R., “ Further Developments in Cold Lining (Nap – Bond System)”, ICOM Committee for Conservation, Working Committee for Stretchers and Lining, Venice, 1975.

12 Percentages refer to data obtained from: LAROCHE, J., SACCARELLO, M. V., “La foderatura dei dipinti: due tradizioni a confronto”, Kermes, Florence, 1996, Edifir, Number 25, pp.11 – 24 (Roman's recipe: 65% - Florentine's recipes: 64%).

13  Lining with glue-paste also uses an water-based adhesive for facing the painting which is made up of 88.5% (Roman recipe) or 85% (Florentine tradition) water.

14 Approximately 0.033 bar – 0.034 kg/cm2 in Mehra’s Cold Lining.

15 MEHRA, V.R., “Nap-bond Cold Lining on a low pressure table”, Maltechnik Restauro, 1975, Vol.81, Number 2, pp. 87 - 95

16 PRESCOTT, P., “The lining cycle”, Conference of ICOM on comparative lining techniques, Greenwich National Maritime Museum, 1974, pp. 1 - 46

17 VAN OCH, J., HOPPENBROUWERS, R., "Mist-lining and low-pressure envelopes: an alternative lining method for the reinforcement of canvas paintings", Zeitschrift für Kunsttechnologie und Konservierung, 2003, Vo.17, Number 1, pp. 116 – 128.

18  The author learned about the method through bibliographic research and participation at a workshop conducted by Jos Van Och at SRAL in Maastricht in March 2011.

19 The system is made up of four interchangeable perforated tubes which follow the painting’s perimeter. The painting and the tubes are covered with a plastic film and the system is connected to a pump that removes the air from under the plastic film, until a maximum pressure of 120 mbar is reached.

20 Under low pressure conditions

21 The pressure used to spray the adhesive is 1.8 mbar.

22 Jos Van Och uses 1% of Rohagit SD15 (Kremer).

23 The exit hole in the nozzle is from 0.8 to 2 mm in diameter, with two parallel side holes on either side of the exit hole. These two lateral holes inclined inwards emit jets of air which produce an almond shaped spray cone.

24 FRAME, K., WEBSTER COOK, S., “Solvent activated dry film lining, preliminary test for the lining of Girl in the fields by Arthur Shilling”, Art Gallery Ontario, unpublished, 1986

25 HORIE, C.V., Materials for Conservation, 2010, Amsterdam, Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann

26 FELLER, R.L., “Thoughts about cross linking”, WAAC Newsletters, 2008, Vol.30, Number 3, pp.16 - 20

27 The increase in movement is linked to a rise in the kinetic energy of the polymer’s molecules.

28 In 1989, M. Shilling showed that Butvar B-79 could only cross-link at a temperature higher than its Tg.

29 The samples used for the peeling tests carried out in Urbino were made with linen canvas.

30 The workshop on Mist Lining organized by SRAL and the experience of working on Titian's painting have been two fundamental moments in my professional development. The open dialogue established with Jos Van Och and the first-hand experience on a lining treatment directly related to research carried out at University were fundamental to the completion of my bibliographical studies and made this article possible.

Haut de page

Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 Visual effect of treatment with mist lining's technique
Légende Detail of front of lining canvas
Crédits Photographic credits: Jos Van Och, René Hoppernbrouwers
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3090/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 168k
Titre  Fig. 2 The adhesive is deposited around the fibers of lining canvas (mist lining's technique)
Légende Detail of a cross-section of the lining canvas with adhesive.
Crédits Photographic credits: Jos Van Och, Renè Hoppernbrouwers
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3090/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 124k
Titre Fig. 3 The adhesive layer in Mehra's cold lining
Légende Nap Bond System – Nap bond system: detail of a screen and a grid of dots of adhesive
Crédits Photographic credits: J.M.M.Martinez; S.M.Ray
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3090/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 376k
Titre Fig. 4 Comparison between experimental results of mist lining and cold lining
Légende Graph 1 The X-axis shows the quantity of solvent used (ml/m2), while the Y-axis has the values for the adhesive force in g/inch using Plextol B500. The lines refer to the experiments of Hedley and Phenix while the dots show the average results of tests carried out in Urbino.
Crédits Photographic credits: Daniele Costantini
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3090/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 64k
Titre Fig. 5 Physical and chemical characteristics of adhesive products
Légende All the products are acrylic dispersion
Crédits Photographic credits: Daniele Costantini
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/3090/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 32k
Haut de page

Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Daniele Costantini, « Cold Lining and Mist Lining: insights and possibilities of adaptation to the mediterranean climate », CeROArt [En ligne], 3 | 2013, mis en ligne le 11 mai 2013, consulté le 29 avril 2017. URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/3090

Haut de page

Auteur

Daniele Costantini

Daniele Costantini obtained a bachelor’s degree in Technology for Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage, at the University of Urbino Carlo Bò in 2010. In the same year, he attended a workshop on Mist Lining, held in Maastricht and organized by SRAL. In 2012, he worked for Equilibrarte on the lining of Titian’s David and Goliath with a modified Mist Lining technique. He is currently enrolled in a Master’s Degree in Conservation and Restoration of cultural heritage at the University of Urbino.

Haut de page

Droits d’auteur

Licence Creative Commons
CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

Haut de page
  • Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Les cahiers de Revues.org