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Self-destruction of three-dimensional modern paintings caused by untypical materials – finding conservation solutions.

Case studies: "Relief" by Jadwiga Maziarska, "Composition by Jerzy Tchórzewski and "Cow Fangor" by Wojciech Fangor
Katarzyna Mikstal

Résumés

Le but de cet article est de souligner la relation entre la matière et l’idée dans une oeuvre d'art – en particulier la peinture tridimensionnelle qui implique des techniques atypiques et non durables. L'étude met en évidence le problème de conserver l'idée lors de la préservation de la substance, en prenant veillant à l’authenticité et en respectant les règles déontologiques de la restauration. L'auteur suggère des solutions pour travailler sur ces objets échappant aux standards traditionnels, et exposés dans une plus grande mesure à la destruction qu’une peinture de chevalet bi-dimensionnelle.

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Notes de la rédaction

Faculty of Conservation at Academy Of Fine Art, Warsaw - Iwona  Szmelter

Notes de l’auteur

This paper is based on MA project, elaborated at Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Poland in March 2011. The main goal of the research is to explore problem of preservation of idea in works of visual art throughout treatment of its material structure. Conservation-restoration of three contemporary artworks on diverse supports explores this issue further.

Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 1  Mikstal K., Untypical materials in modern works of art. Problems of conservations of: “Relief” by (...)

1The subject of this argument is the conservation of modern artworks which may be specified as rather distant from traditional disciplines of fine arts. Retaining untypical, non-artistic matter of a work of art which undergoes physical changes has a direct influence on its character, reading and meaning. The issues discussed by the author as an M.A. thesis are connected with the retention of the idea and the material and its role in visual arts altering over the centuries, especially in the course of the last century1.

2The condition of contemporary works of art is a result of creative experiments which sometimes stem from the lack of knowledge, liability to acting ad hoc or creative provocations. The consequence is the impermanence entailed in the nature of modern objects. Not only do organic materials turn out to be short-lived and fleeting but also the synthetic ones adapted by contemporary artists which proves the sad evanescence of a work of art. The conservator should learn about the object in a dual system – emotionally and structurally, and shouldn’t abstain from any genuine scientific research. It is the right recognition and understanding which serves as a key to getting to the nature of the changes in its material and concept sphere, from general to particular. The artistic meaning of a piece of art as well as the intentions of its author determine the way we interpret the transformation and assign the limit of our conservation intervening.

3The research on the cultural and historic context of an author’s activity and putting a work of art in his biography are an essential phase of conservator’s examinations since they allow to grasp the relation “idea versus material”. An artwork, similarly to a patient, should be examined closely while its author should be interviewed prior to making a decision about undertaking a treatment. This is because every single intervention requires the identification of a material and its meaning. The diagnosis is rendered more difficult by application of untypical painting techniques and/or using non-artistic materials which, many a time, become a reason for the ‘self-destruction’ of works of art. The process of the progressing self-destruction of matter brings about the reflections upon the relation between the essence of a work of art, its function, author’s intention and the retention of its component elements as well as its artistic cohesion. To stop this process of changes exerting an impact on the original reception and going against its author’s intention or even leading to a complete decomposition of the work of art, one is required to adapt all restoration efforts to the object and material specifics.

The role of artistic/non-artistic materials in contemporary art

„I want to incorporate into my painting any objects of real life.” Robert Rauchenberg2

4The notion of artistic/non-artistic materials as a creative substance of a work of art has been tarnished. It had evaluated in the course of the previous century and the changes in its understanding were mainly dictated by turning back from the object and concentrating on the idea. When looking for genuine forms of expression artists would distance themselves from the previous means and took up various experiments which were often made without resigning from traditional painting canvasses for creating new structures by using untypical materials. It was another symptom of braking up with traditional art  in which authors desired their works to live as long as possible. The quality of materials, technical perfection, technological excellence and artistic craft would determine the aesthetic value of a work of art. Modern art equipped it with new layers of meanings.

5Matter has gained a new meaning throughout the 20th and 21st century. Its changing character in the course of this period reflects the shifts in the creative consciousness of artists which led to breakthrough events that shaped contemporary art. For the means of expression have an indirect influence upon the character and durability of all different types of artistic and cultural phenomena as well as their shape and range. The material structure of a piece of art and its artistic role implied by the substance of a creative material is volatile and undergoes an ongoing evolution while modern art progresses. In traditional art it was expressed by style features a determining the creative environment whereas currently it appears as something more individual than programmatic.

6Revolutionary changes in the present industrial technology, the advancements in chemistry of polymers as well as the use of scientific achievements by mass production exerted a considerable impact on accessibility of various materials, both synthetic and natural. Their lowered production costs made them highly popular, also when it came to artistic endeavours. The shape and condition of modern artistic works have been heavily dependent on the technological breakthrough but also on a shift in a common mode of thinking. The introduction to ready mades and found objects by the Dada movement as well as the expansion of popular culture, featured by pop-art which, tarnished the border between highbrow and lowbrow. Consumerism was brought back to the picture and due to adopting kitsch one would get back to cheapness and commonness.

7According to the opinion that ‘everything is art’ expressed by Andy Warhol, plastic and everyday objects, considered trashy and useless, were introduced to museums and galleries. In this manner, the craft of artistic objects was trivialized and the notion of a work of art as a valuable craft’s object was beginning to be undermined. At the same time, what was promoted was the individualism of the artist himself who, many a time, got inspired by unsophisticated culture and its objects of everyday use.

8On the other hand, shifting a focal point from material to intellectual exposed a complex, multileveled character of artistic works rendering them stronger in their expression and proving that one could do everything with a material. The role of a plastic material and substance awareness did not depreciate while consumerism was progressing. It held true both when it came to the creative process and the reception of a finished work. Intellectualization of an artistic object supported the role of ephemeral materials as rhetorical figures of art in the 20th century.

Process of creation and its influence on the perception and condition of artwork

  • 3  From the introduction/foreword to a catalogue released on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of (...)

“A work of art is realized in a material which is artistically valuable. Let’s save it by protecting this material.”3

9The substance and its changeability is a factor which determines the reception of a work of art. The problem of making the author’s intention unreadable and losing its initial character is usually caused by the changes which occur within the structure of the original. The choice of ephemeral materials which are bound to degrade is sometimes a doom for an art object.

  • 4  Szmelter I., “The newest art: to be or not to be, On the Care of Collections", materials form the (...)

10Contemporary artists cannot be bothered to follow the conservation tendencies and protect the material elements. They marginalize their role by ignoring the quality and durability of materials. They limit their role to sole objects serving as props in their performance or destroy them, on purpose, to carry on their artistic visions. This is a brand new attitude in history of art. Therefore, when it comes to a contemporary work of art, the restoration procedures may only limit themselves to as little as conservation through documentation. Hence such works of art should be treated as multileveled artistic compositions which make up an intangible heritage whereas the objects which build their material structure as media for artistic ideas.4

11Problems with conservation, caused by impermanence of ephemeral objects, both conceptual and more traditional in structure, may only be resolved by scientific research. Not only do these issues concern the ways of avoiding the disintegration of materials and improving the techniques of their protection but also stand as a new intellectual challenge for collection keepers – conservators and curators.

  • 5  Szmelter I., New Conceptual Framework for the Preservation of the Heritage of Modern Art - as the (...)

12Protecting the intangible heritage of art and culture, which has incorporated contemporary, interdisciplinary works, requires cooperation between many specialists qualified in humanities and natural science, analysts and researchers who operate in many areas in an integrated manner. The standards of collection, museum and conservation practices prove insufficient when it comes to protecting perishable, multilayered structures which are not confined to mere matter. To be able to achieve this with works of art that go far beyond the traditional artistic disciplines, one started to look for a new conceptual framework for the preservation of the heritage of modern art.5

13It contains the imperative of the comprehension, recognition and formulation of the aesthetic situation as well as the conceptual dimension of a work of art. To understand it correctly one is bound to go through a process of identifying all of its individual material elements. However, most importantly, one has to understand the meaning created by the artist who had encoded his idea into a material. Faulty intervening in its structure, stemming from the lack of understanding of artistic intentions, may lead to faking the material. This, in turn, may cause distortions in the proper reception within the ideological and philosophical sphere and finally a complete misrepresentation of the original message.

Case Studies

14The notion of incorporating untypical materials into the realm of art has been elaborated by case studies about conservation-restoration of three modern works of art. They feature different conservation problems: three-dimensional “Relief” as an example of matter painting by Jadwiga Maziarska; “Composition” by Jerzy Tchórzewski – mixed techniques on paper; “Cow Fangor” by Wojciech Fangor- three-dimensional, polychrome casting. What “Relief” and “Composition” have in common is not only an analogous creative tendency aiming at art matter. They are also joined by the mode of thinking which was so popular among artists of this particularly important moment in the history of Polish art. The artistic cohesion of the restored objects enabled thorough analysis of their meanings and their authors’ intentions. It stands as an indispensible element of a restoration research practice which is essential for interdisciplinary objects of modern art.

Relief  by Jadwiga Maziarska

15“Relief” by Jadwiga Maziarska was painted in 1962. As an example of matter painting it may be characterized by an untypical, three-dimensional construction.

Fig. 1 Relief by Jadwiga Maziarska  (1962) before treatment

Fig. 1 Relief by Jadwiga Maziarska  (1962) before treatment

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

16The cardboard which stands as a background of the composition is glued to the loom from the back while the space between the fold of the cut is filled with glue-seeped cotton wool. The glue, which had decomposed, caused detachment of the elements. In addition, the artist fixed the sides of the cardboard to the loom by means of scotch tape and filled the upper edge with wax which had crumbled and produced losses. At the front, the artist put a relief form made of cardboard, partly sewing it into the canvas and then filled the inside with cotton wool. The next thing performed by the artist was painting the background and covering the relief with a wax-like substance painted with oil paints. To decipher the adhesive – red, semi-transparent substance – there was a research conducted. It found out that the artist used a synthetic bee wax, dyed with pigments. The upper part of the composition and the flat section of the background was covered with paint which is based on thin oil adhesive. The biggest problem for conservation was a progressing disintegration stimulated by grime and microbiological infection. The front and the back were reported to contain fungus: canvass, loom, cotton wool under the cardboard fold, inside the relief as well as in the cracks of the painting layer.

17Technological inconsistency of the artist had a heavy influence on the condition of the object. Covering the paper, hygroscopic support with a thick layer of wax resulted in the lack of adhesion of the painting layer. Because of the activity of the flexible cardboard, there emerged frequent cracks and disjoints. The lack of adhesion and cohesion of the substance making up the surface of the relief, was a direct consequence of using untypical, non-artistic materials, excluding themselves.

Composition by Jerzy Tchórzewski

18The “Composition” by J. Tchórzewski made in 1964 is also an example of Polish matter painting. Its exceptionality is also a product of an untypical technique used. Making a support for ‘heavy’, impasto painting surface may be rarely seen. It is because artists usually decide to build up textured compositions on canvasses which are thought to be more stable.

Fig. 2 Composition by Jerzy Tchórzewski  (1964) before treatment

Fig. 2 Composition by Jerzy Tchórzewski  (1964) before treatment

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

19In the upper part of the work, the artist attached a wrinkled piece of crepe paper which gives an effect of a texture that seems different than the rest of the surface. Stratigraphic sample taken from the part which depicts a black stripe, imply the use of white paint in the section of the texture. Then comes black paint scarce use of white paint which is traceable on the ridges of the ‘wrinkles’. An examination showed that the white was used with an acrylic adhesive while the black is based on water adhesive. “Composition” was painted according to the rules of the gouache technique and the impastos were probably made with acrylic gesso.

20Because of dampness, hygroscopic paper working as a support for a loaded, textured painting work had undergone deformations. The back was only slightly dusted but at the front one could make out tiny abrasions – shallow lacunas in the painting layer and the paper structure. Moreover, the chalking tops of impastos produced white trails causing an effect which had been not originally intended, which resulted in a distortion of the esthetic impression.

21Initially, the painting had been tacked to a fiberboard that was adjacent to the back. It produced a process of acidification of the support and caused slow degradation of the paper.

Cow Fangor by Wojciech Fangor

22The Polychrome “Cow Fangor” was made in 2005 as a part of an international Project Cow Parade Warsaw 2005. Its model was formed using a papier-mâché technique with an addition of binding and conserving substances. It was put on a form which had been previously prepared for this purpose. Then it was left to dry up. According to examination, the cow was covered in epoxy resinous laminate and supplementary fillers. After the hardening process, the cow model stood as a ready painting surface. The artist painted the object with paints based on polyester adhesive.

Fig. 3 Cow Fangor by Wojciech Fangor  (2005) before treatment

Fig. 3 Cow Fangor by Wojciech Fangor  (2005) before treatment

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

23The polyester paint was spread on a slippery, smooth basis. When drying up, it let out gaseous substances which produced a physical shrinkage and changes in volume due to unequal contraction in drying. This triggered crazing of the painting layer – stress cracking, which were visible as surface lines and chipped off flakes, mainly located on the cow’s back, in the light blue area. Many of them are of a peeling and parting nature  and caused an optical change of the surface which was formerly smooth. The painting layer exposed a mat, white support while the deformed peel-off flakes were easily visible on the surface of the blue as dark spots. In the sections of impastos, the peal-offs which are raised upward give a somewhat drizzling effect.

Fig. 4 Area of stress cracking

Fig. 4 Area of stress cracking

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

24The tiny mechanical damage as scratches were mostly seen on protruding and convex parts of the form. The reason for this was mainly the exposure to the outside conditions and a direct contact with viewers as well as frequent transporting. The inflexible painting layer was shrinking and extending because of temperature fluctuations and crumbled due to a limited tolerance to the changing of volume parameters and a significant  temperature amplitude.

Conservation strategy, decision-making process and treatment

25Firstly, in order to exclude the intrusion into the initial state of multi-dimensional works of art, one is bound to carry out a detailed analysis of their authors’ work. This must be done in the context of their culture, history and biography. Secondly, one should conduct a research in order to understand the proper meaning and learn about the technology of the objects to prepare oneself for establishing a conservation project.

26Thus, the proper understanding of an idea, function and structure made it possible to recognize the artwork to such a degree that it was possible to initiate active conservation and take up the risk of distorting the author’s message. One was bound to make up an individual conservation program which was fit for the needs and the nature of each of them. Untypical materials used as artistic means of expressions, usually prone to aging, are difficult or even impossible to stay unchanged. The intervening in the painting tissue may keep the original idea and retain the intellectual and aesthetic area of the reception. It can be achieved when choosing the proper methods is preceded by many examinations and material tests. These must be selected taking considerable care of their chemical and physical stability, mutual combinations, compatibility with the original version as well as incorporating them to traditional techniques. The research rendered the conservation practice possible and enabled the proper conducting of the planned treatment.

Relief  by Jadwiga Maziarska

27The aim of the conservation of “Relief” by Jadwiga Maziarska was to stop the process of disintegration which was progressing due to the microbiological infestation and an accelerated aging of technologically defective layers. The conservation process was also about making the structure of the object stronger. The destroyed elements had to be replaced by new, durable and biostatic ones. Another thing done was the stabilization of the carrying construction to the point in which it was resistant to the deformation because of the weight of the relief composition. The very relief was also stabilized since its interior was refilled, thus thickening it and protecting it against further deformations. An essential point on the program was putting a stop to the process of cracking which produced irreversible losses – lacunas in the painting layer. In order to achieve this, one had to apply a binding material within the cracks taking into account the flexibility of the adhesive and making it possible for all layers to work with each other.

28Taking up the appropriate methods of conservation, preceded by an extended examination on the techniques and technology of the painting as well as understanding the relations between various layers, allowed to salvage the object and protect it against irreversible aesthetic changes.

29In the first stage of the abovementioned efforts the object was disinfected in the stained areas by the use of an antifungal substance - Neodesogen®. The disintegrating elements: cotton wool and scotch tape were taken out by soaking the joint in white spirit and warming it to obtain the effect of softening. After this, there appeared a blank space between the cardboard and the loom and it had to be filled in such a manner as to supply a support base for the cardboard construction. For this purpose, a chunk of non-acid cardboard was cut to stripes which were, in turn, stuck together in a gradient mode. It was done in order for the whole piece to adhere to the cut. The use of abrasive paper modeled a wedge. Stripes of polyester fabric were put between the canvass and the cardboard. After sticking the wedges, they were sealed by the canvas and cardboard and thus attached to the loom through adhering fabric stripes.

Fig. 5 Process of strengthening the construction – fitting up the wedges

Fig. 5 Process of strengthening the construction – fitting up the wedges

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

30Then, a cut piece of a PMMA slat was installed in the spot where the relief is attached to the cardboard bar. It was put under the cardboard so its ends leaned on the loom playing a carrying role for the relief construction. It formerly pressed the canvass and resulted in its deformation.

Fig. 6 Installation of PMMA slat

Fig. 6 Installation of PMMA slat

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

31In the next stage of the process, material tests were made. Their goal was to  select the most effective substance which could be used for the impregnation and to glue the peel-off flakes. Methylcellulose proved effective for sticking and appropriate for impregnation with no risk of an intensive glittering.

32With the use of transparent Polyurethane glue it was possible to fill the cracks and holes in the synthetic wax layer. After the consolidation the construction of the relief was opened by cutting off the wax ‘plugs’ which blocked the tubes. The inside cotton wool was taken off since it was threatened with  further decomposition through infection. The inside of the relief cardboard was disinfected.

33The elements of the cardboard construction, which came apart in the process of the deformation, were straightened up and frontally join together along the edges.

34The construction of the relief was stabilized by filling its inside parts with mineral wool. It is light, immune to a microbiological attack and of amorphous structure with stiff fibers. It has pushed the cardboard inside preventing it from subsiding and relocating. The frontal part of a mineral wool was impregnated before the disassembled elements have been attached.

Fig. 7 Relief refilled with mineral wool. Attaching disassembled elements

Fig. 7 Relief refilled with mineral wool. Attaching disassembled elements

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

35In the course of the conservation process it occurred that the yellowish, fungus-like coating was also visible on the surface and inside of the relief structure. The same happened in the spots where the cracks exposed the paper support. Macroscopic photos showed the presence of numerous spherical spores. The object underwent a fumigation process in a gas chamber. After the neutralization period the surface of the relief was cleaned mechanically.

Fig. 8 Microbiological infection of canvas, cardboard and painting layer

Fig. 8 Microbiological infection of canvas, cardboard and painting layer

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

36Next, the tests on substances was made, namely the ones which should serve as a filling for the cracks in the synthetic wax painting layer. The gap filler was prepared with composition of natural and synthetic wax and resins, liquidating through warming while mixing with powder pigments simultaneously. The most desired features – appearance  as well as sufficient mechanical resistance, were manifested by a mixture of bees wax modified by damar resin with addition of powder pigments. While warm it was put on and after the concentration, the surface of putties was worked upon by means of swabs and brushes soaked in toluene which enabled the modeling of the surface. It was retouched by using ketone based colours.

Fig. 9 Tests of substances for the gap filler

Fig. 9 Tests of substances for the gap filler

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

37There were also gesso tests in order to find a substance for volumetric reintegration of the oil painting layer. What proved to be the most appropriate one was an artistic mixture for canvas priming. It was used for filling the lacunas in the white section of the composition.

38The putties of an oil painting layer were retouched with natural resin colours. The shining over paints, were also retouched. Thus the effect of eliminating the shinning ‘islands’ from the background was achieved.

39After finalizing of the restoration, a microbiological tests was conducted. It did not notify any microorganic presence. The object was put into a show-case. PMMA cassette serves as a protecting buffer and prevents the textured surface from being dusted. This diminishes the risk of another infection. Owing to the gaps at the back of the cassette, the object is constantly ventilated – such conditions are microorganism unfriendly and do not allow to accumulate the gaseous substances which will be emitted. The prevention measures exposed the painting relief in a form that goes with the assumptions of the artist.

Fig. 10 State after conservation treatment. PMMA cassette as a way of prevention

Fig. 10 State after conservation treatment. PMMA cassette as a way of prevention

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

Composition by Jerzy Tchórzewski

40The aim of the restoration of the “Composition” was to put a stop to the process of the basis destruction through bringing back its proper pH value. What is more, the painting required being cleaned from dust as well as little chunks of white pigment which had been rubbed into the surface of the painting surface. Then, the aesthetic qualities needed to be restored so that the colour reintegration wouldn’t affect the intended outcome or distort the initial reception of the work. Their reintegration, unified with the original technique was a must. Another necessity was straightening of the support deformations.

41The frame, which had been nailed to the support, was dismounted and the painting was taken apart from the fiberboard. Then the front was cleaned mechanically to clean the white smudges. The back was cleaned mechanically with rubber. In the next stage, the right bottom corner was used as a testing area for deacidification process, conducted with neutralizer of harmful acids in spray - Bookkeeper®. The outcome was satisfactory so the same method was applied to the whole back and resulted in a reaction reserve. Then, the painting was straightened on a low-pressure table by moisturizing its back with a fungicidal substance dissolved in water.

42The losses in the painting layer were retouched directly on the original support with gouache paints.

Fig. 11 Before and after retouching

Fig. 11 Before and after retouching

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

43What the painting required the most was a proper frame that would isolate the front and the back from harmful external conditions, such as dust, grime or UV radiation. The new frame covers the front with PMMA glass which will protect it from accidental mechanical damage like scratches and abrasions. Due to a special construction there is no straightforward contact between the paper object and the glass which in unfavorable conditions may accumulate dampness. The proper isolation of the back from such frame elements as screws and aluminum fittings has been also taken care of. The frame makes a stiff and stable support for the object which gets separated from the back board with non-acid cardboard. Because of the paper support of the painting it is advisable to ensure an appropriate, stable environment to avoid physical and chemical degradation.

Cow Fangor by Wojciech Fangor

44The main goal of the conservation process was to bring back the original aesthetic qualities of the object and exposing it into proper conditions. The work which was meant to be exhibited outdoors as a plastic sculpture turned out to be made of papier-mâché and required restoration and indoor keeping.

45The object was cleaned of dust and surface dirt. The simultaneous impregnation of the areas with insufficient amount of adhesive, indirect varnishing of mat spots as well as isolating the sections intended for retouching was conducted with acrylic resin based varnish. The remaining cracks were retouched with ketone based restoration colours, to cover the white preparation on mould. The part which before the treatment exposed the dark, deformed peel-offs were retouched brighter to imitate the colour of smooth surface. Next, the whole polychrome mould was covered with satin varnish protecting it against the UV radiation. The owner was informed of the proper conditions of the exposition. He received a set of directions as to how to store and transport the sculpture with a strong recommendation of avoiding the outdoor environment.

Fig. 12 Images before and after retouching

Fig. 12 Images before and after retouching

Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal

Conclusion

46The directions and forms of visual art which surface in modern times pose serious challenges to our duty of preserving works of art in a social and academic awareness, regardless of their material impermanence. The goal of every modern art conservator is the elimination of the dangers that may threaten artworks thorough preserving the combination of their matter and idea. The right actions allow to keep the idea and an unchanged intention of an author.

47From the conservator’s perspective, the common element of the abovementioned,
three-dimensional objects is the behavior of the untypical materials used in the creative process, their features and their impact on the shape and the perception of these works. The processes within their structure and their faulty usage contributed to the change and damage which could be observed in them. The ideas in the works of Maziarska, Tchórzewski and Fangor were threatened from the very moment in which they were created. Their condition grew worse when their material structure had undergone changes and started to decompose. The reasons of the damage draw our attention to the problem of untypical materials and techniques in painting. Impermanent and ephemeral elements may sometimes lead to a complete self-destruction. This process may be stopped or slowed down if one adjusts the conservation methods to the character of the restorated works and their untypical substances. In the above case studies the special technique and technology of three-dimensional painting required the measures which were fit for uncommon functions of polychrome artworks.
A complete elimination of the undesired changes was reinforced by the right exposition and formulation of directions concerning the question of their storage. The consequence was a continuation of the restoration project and translating part of the actions to the rules of exposition and presentation of the objects.

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Bibliographie

Mikstal K., Nietypowe materiały plastyczne w obiektach sztuki współczesnej. Problematyka konserwacji: „Reliefu" Jadwigi Maziarskiej, „Kompozycji" Jerzego Tchórzewskiego oraz ‘krowy’ „Fangor" Wojciecha Fangora., MA thesis at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, promoter: Prof. Iwona Szmelter, Warszawa 2011

Wywiad z André Parinaud, http://www.centrepompidou.fr/education/ressources/ENS-rauschenberg-EN/ENS-rauschenberg-EN.htm#haut, [dostęp: 12. 12.2010].

Katalog wydany z okazji 50-lecia warszawskiego Wydziału Konserwacji i Restauracji Dzieł Sztuki ASP, Warszawa 1996

Szmelter I., „Być albo nie być” sztuki najnowszej w praktyce, [w:] O opiece nad kolekcją, Materiały z projektu „To nie jest wystawa”, Zachęta Narodowa Galeria Sztuki, red. M. Bogdańska-Krzyżanek, J. Egit-Pużyńska, Warszawa 2008

Szmelter I., Nowa rama konceptualna opieki na dziedzictwem sztuki nowoczesnej – jako podstawa projektu konserwatorskiego oraz nowych procedur w budowaniu kolekcji, Biuletyn Informacyjny Konserwatorów Dzieł Sztuki, Vol. 19, No 1-4 (72-75), 2008

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Notes

1  Mikstal K., Untypical materials in modern works of art. Problems of conservations of: “Relief” by Jadwiga Maziarska, “Composition” by Jerzy Tchórzewski, and a “Cow Fangor” by Wojciech Fangor. MA thesis at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, promoter: Prof. Iwona Szmelter, Warszaw 2011

2  Interview with André Parinaud, http://www.centrepompidou.fr/education/ressources/ENS-rauschenberg-EN/ENS-rauschenberg-EN.htm#haut, [access: 12.12.2010].

3  From the introduction/foreword to a catalogue released on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Institute of Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw by prof. Wojciech Kurpik, Warszaw 1996, p. 1.

4  Szmelter I., “The newest art: to be or not to be, On the Care of Collections", materials form the project ‘This is not an exhibition’ at Zachęta National Gallery of Art, ed. J. Pużyńska, M. Bogdańska, Zachęta, 2009, p. 27

5  Szmelter I., New Conceptual Framework for the Preservation of the Heritage of Modern Art - as the Basis of Conservation and Guidelines, Journal of Conservation-Restoration, Vol. 19, No 1-4 (72-75), 2008, p. 3.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 Relief by Jadwiga Maziarska  (1962) before treatment
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 76k
Titre Fig. 2 Composition by Jerzy Tchórzewski  (1964) before treatment
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 132k
Titre Fig. 3 Cow Fangor by Wojciech Fangor  (2005) before treatment
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 80k
Titre Fig. 4 Area of stress cracking
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Titre Fig. 5 Process of strengthening the construction – fitting up the wedges
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 112k
Titre Fig. 6 Installation of PMMA slat
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 72k
Titre Fig. 7 Relief refilled with mineral wool. Attaching disassembled elements
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Titre Fig. 8 Microbiological infection of canvas, cardboard and painting layer
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 156k
Titre Fig. 9 Tests of substances for the gap filler
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 156k
Titre Fig. 10 State after conservation treatment. PMMA cassette as a way of prevention
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 112k
Titre Fig. 11 Before and after retouching
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Titre Fig. 12 Images before and after retouching
Crédits Photo credit: Katarzyna Mikstal
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/2622/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
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Katarzyna Mikstal, « Self-destruction of three-dimensional modern paintings caused by untypical materials – finding conservation solutions. », CeROArt [En ligne], 2 | 2012, mis en ligne le 19 juin 2012, consulté le 28 mai 2017. URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/2622

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Auteur

Katarzyna Mikstal

Master of Arts Degree in Conservation-Restoration of Works of Art, Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw, Poland, specialization in Painting and Polychrome Sculpture Conservation. Diploma in Conservation of Modern and Contemporary Art. MA thesis explores the issue of incorporation of modern materials into area of art. The theoretical part includes a research and description of plastics as a popular materials used by today’s artists and how these can be treated and preserved. Film conservator-restorer at National Film Archive in Warsaw, Poland.

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Licence Creative Commons
CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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