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Damage Atlas for Photographic materials

Analogue objects
Kristel Van Camp

Résumés

La conservation des documents photographiques peut nécessiter des interventions préventives ou curatives. Ce choix est guidé par leur état de conservation. Une meilleure connaissance des détériorations est donc cruciale. Le répertoire présenté ici essaie de les classifier selon des caractéristiques spécifiques et leur niveau de gravité. Les différents types de dégradation sont illustrés et décrits avec une terminologie précise. L’auteur propose en regard de ceux-ci l’intervention qui semble la plus appropriée. Ce répertoire s’adresse à toutes les personnes concernées par la photographie, qu’ils soient dans le milieu de la conservation ou dans le domaine artistique, dans les musées ou dans les archives. 

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Notes de la rédaction

Artesis Hogeschool Antwerpen – Contact: Eva Annys

Texte intégral

Introduction

1Not one single object has eternal life. It is therefore the responsibility of the conservator to ensure that objects are preserved as well as possible and extend their life-span by carrying out interventions. These interventions can be preventive or curative. A good knowledge of all materials is therefore crucial. To save a damaged object it is crucial to recognize the characterizations of the damage. A damage atlas can provide the necessary help in terms of diagnosis.

2In all kinds of institutions such as museums, archives and private collections people are confronted with damage and need some kind of help to make a proper diagnosis. The damage atlas provides an overview of all sorts of known damage on analogue photographical material. The atlas is a working tool that provides the necessary information to recognize the damage, the degree of damage, and can provide the proper terminology.

3It was however impossible to make a complete damage atlas in one year. A cooperation between the Museum of Photography in Antwerp and the Dutch Museum of Photography in Rotterdam will lead to the publication of a damage atlas. This thesis is the first step into a deeper understanding of damage and presents a template for an atlas. It contains a tree structure to describe al kinds of damage, a thesaurus to look for the proper terminology and a glossary. Descriptions of three types of damage are developed completely. During the follow-up of the research, the atlas will be tested by people who will possibly use it in the future. Their comments will help to improve the atlas. In the end the atlas is intended as a reference document that can be applied by museums, archives, conservation schools and in private collections.

What is damage?

4To the question ‘what is damage?’ there are many possible answers, depending on the context. There are different types and sorts of damage. However, in the context of conservation science there is a problem concerning the definition of damage. The adjective is explained but not the term “damage” itself. For example: in “chemical damage”, the adjective “chemical” is explained, but not the term “damage” itself.

  • 1  Vansweevelt Thierry en Weyts Britt, Handboek Buitencontractueel Aansprakelijkheidsrecht, © Interse (...)

5There are also other areas where the word “damage” is used in a daily context, such as law and insurance areas. But in these areas the same problem occurs and it can even be stated that there is no legal definition of damage.1 Nonetheless, a definition is important to create a frame of reference to work with. Despite the absence of a legal definition, there are some valid descriptions.

Description of damage by Jonathan Ashley-Smith

6Jonathan Ashley-Smith was the former head of Conservation, Victoria & Albert Museum, London, UK.

7His description of damage deals exclusively with objects of art and consumer goods.

  • 2  Ashley-Smith Jonathan, “Definitions of Damage”, in: Cool Conservation (online), 1995. http://cool. (...)

 “Something that by an effect on our level of understanding and enjoyment or on the object’s life-span causes a decrease in total benefit.”2

Description of damage by Eric Dirix

8Eric Dirix was the former assistant of the Law faculty, University of Antwerp.

9His description looks at damage as a difference between two states: the state where the damage has occurred and the hypothetical state where the damage has not occurred. The description contains a causal, hypothetical and comparative element and can cover all areas of damage.

  • 3  Dirix Eric, Het begrip schade, Maarten Kluwer’s Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerpen-Ape (...)

“In normal language, damage is: every disadvantage, every loss, every decrease of someone’s property, and every decrease of his pleasure, every suffer or smart.”[…] “Damage is a decrease and can be determined by comparing two states, the actual state after the wrongful action and the hypothetical state where the damage had not yet occurred. The description contains a causal, hypothetical and comparative element.”3

  • 4  Dirix Eric, Het begrip schade, Maarten Kluwer’s Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerpen-Ape (...)

10It is clear that damage is not an isolated phenomenon, but always occurs in association with objects and its state or persons. It can be divided into two main types: material damage and moral damage. These two types can be further divided into different types of damage.4 For the damage atlas there is only one important kind of damage in the category material damage: namely “objects damage”. This is damage to movables and immovables or real estate. A further restriction of the movables leads to “damage on art- and implement objects” and to “damage on analogue photographical objects”. In all this, the question of liability, any forms of claims and financial aspects are not considered. The focus lies purely on the damage itself.

11To obtain a usable description that works as a reference, both descriptions of Jonathan Ashley-Smith and Eric Dirix are used together. This description contains also the words condition and the initial state.

“Damage is something that by an effect on our level of understanding and enjoyment or on the object’s life-span causes a decrease in condition. It can be determined by comparing two states, the actual state after the wrongful action and the initial state where the damage has not yet occurred.”

The initial state

  • 5  Marijnissen R.H. en Kockaert L., Dialoog met het geschonden beeld, na 250 jaar restauratie, Mercat (...)

12The initial state is the state of the object when the wrongful action did not take place. Before treating objects it is crucial to know what the initial state was. This means: the state of the object when it has just been made.5 However, the initial state is not always known and sometimes damage already begins to occur when the object has just been made. Depending on the material of the object, the use, preservation and the type of wrongful action, the damage will proceed fast or slow.

13Objects are always seen in their present state. To make a damage inventory, knowledge of the initial state is important. This knowledge can be obtained by comparing objects in different conditions. The condition is the physical state of an object at any moment in time. By comparing different conditions, typical characterisations of damage can be investigated.

14There is a question to be asked: is natural aging also damage? In natural aging there is a decrease in the condition, so natural aging is also damage. Furthermore, natural aging can cause a deterioration in condition, through instability of the material or through influences outside of the object, although these are not always clear-cut. If natural aging can not be considered as damage, then where is the thin line between the two and who decides on the context and the interpretation?

15A second remark can be made: who decides what is damage and what is not? An example: an artist makes a tear in his own work for artistic purposes. This tear is not damage because it belongs to the initial state. A visitor of an exhibition makes a tear in an exposed object. This tear is damage because it does not belong to the initial state.

Causes of damage

16Damage can be caused in different ways. There are two important types of causes: internal causes and external causes.

Internal causes

  • 6  Boston George, ed., “Safeguarding of our documentary heritage”, in: UNESCO – Memory of the World ( (...)

17Internal causes lie in the material of the object itself. During the making of the object the cause of damage is already present in the material (substrate, emulsion, etc.), or in the products (chemicals) or tools (machinery, pincers, dirty hands, etc.) used to make the object.6

18By contamination of the material, products or tools with non-object related foreign materials during the production process. These strange materials can infect the object later on.

19Errors during production of the object, like residual chemicals or for instance of too big a difference in temperature applied.

20Instability of the material itself, for example early plastics.

21The different materials of the object can affect each other.

External causes

  • 7  Boston George, ed., “Safeguarding of our documentary heritage”, in: UNESCO – Memory of the World ( (...)

22In external causes the decay does not lie in the object itself, but it depends on external influences. The speed of the decay depends on these factors.7

23Environmental factors such as lighting, polluted air, non-adapted temperature and/or humidity, bad packaging and calamities such as fire and flooding.

24Factors of manipulation, such as vandalism, wrong manipulation and/or use of the object.

Forms and types of damage

25Research into the literature on diverse forms of damage reveals that every publication uses a different classification system. Some models are purely theoretical and therefore not usable in practise. Other models are usable, but even these contain huge differences. There is no universal standard on terminology concerning damage that can be used by all parties when talking about damage. The terminology for forms, types and kinds of damage are subject to interpretation and the terminology to talk about the degree of damage is even less clear.

26Furthermore, causes of damage are frequently labelled as damage. For example: vandalism. Vandalism is not damage in itself but can be the cause of damage: it can have a mechanical, chemical or biological origin. Even when the object is stolen, the vandalism is not damage in itself but a cause of damage. The loss of the object is the damage.

27The objective of the damage atlas is to give an overview of the known types of damage. To order the multitude of damages, they can be divided into three main groups: mechanical, chemical and biological damage. This division is made on the basis of initial origin: The damage is of mechanical, chemical or biological origin. A further subdivision leads to a number of damage types within these specific forms. They are divided according to their visual characteristics, such as form and colour changes. All subdivisions finally lead up to the specific images of damage. They are assembled in a tree-structure to get a clear overview. The problem we encounter here is that some types of damage can be classified within two or three different forms. Here, the initial cause of damage takes priority: is it primarily mechanical, chemical or biological. For each image of damage, there is an indication if it can evolve into multiple forms.

28Certain image of damage can evolve from one form to another. Some examples are “stains” and “glue residues”. Stains can initially be classified as mechanical damage, but evolve into chemical damage if the material that is causing the stain forms a chemical bond with the material the object is made of and changes its original chemical composition.

29In the margin there are a few more phenomena that have the appearance of damage, but do not really cause damage to the object. These are caused by other factors: namely by damage early in the process, by mistakes or intentional actions by the photographer. An example: a grain of sand in the camera grates the film during the rewinding process and in this manner the film is scratched. The scratch on the film is real damage. The film is printed afterwards and in the photos, the scratch can be observed as a white line. If a photo-negative is printed, the image will be positive on the photo. All the information on the negative can be seen in the photo, and this also implies damages to the negative. The white line on the photo is no damage to the photo. The cause must be attributed to the process.

30There are different phenomena that can be interpreted as damage, but are no damage at all. To counter this problem, a fourth category was added, to exclude misunderstandings and false interpretations. The subdivision into types is made on the basis of the moment on which the phenomenon manifested itself.

Mechanical or structural damage

  • 8  IFLA, “Mechanical Forces”, in: IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Insti (...)

31Mechanical damage is a physical deterioration of the condition, and mostly disturbs the view or the legibility of the object. The chemical structure on an atomic and molecular level remains the same and the micro-structure and substructure are usually preserved. The mechanical strain on an object can sometimes provoke changes in the object’s structure. Mechanical damage originates from a physical force applied to an object.8 These forces can work during a period of time on the object or the damage can be a sudden deterioration of the condition, with a beginning and an end to the damage, such as a scratch or a fracture. The damage can also be the result of a slow and continuous process of constant deterioration of the condition, such as surface dirt that evolves into incrusted dirt. The damage becomes apparent as pollution, adhesion of non- object related-foreign materials, as structural change or as material loss. In general, four types of mechanical damage can be distinguished, that are subdivided into specific damage-types:

Damage through pollution

32The damage is caused by pollution, through the deposit of diverse materials on objects, from superficial dirt by dust to stains. The mechanical damage can evolve into chemical damage if the deposits migrate into the object’s structure and form bonds with the material of the object and affect the original chemical constitution. This damage is random and rarely of intentional character.

Damage by non-object related foreign materials

33The damage occurs when object foreign materials get adhered to the object and introduce a physical force onto the object and/or disturb the legibility. The mechanical damage can evolve into chemical damage if the object foreign materials migrates into the object and forms bonds with the original material of the object. Mostly, these materials are intentionally placed onto the object. For example: a photo is hung on the wall using sticky tape. The tape is not part of the original state of the object. This type of damage can also have a random character. For example: two photographs are being preserved with the emulsion one on top of the other. After some time, these will stick together.

Damage through form changes

34The damage occurs because the form of the object has changed from the original form through a physical force, without loss of material. This can happen in one or more directions.

Damage through material loss

35The damage to objects results from physical forces leading to loss of material. The object is exhibiting loose particles and/or fragments and/or original material is missing. This does not necessarily mean that all objects literally lost material, for example cracks, tears or fractures. But the objects consist of loose elements or of different parts, which can lead to loss of material. For example in case of brittleness, which is a physical condition which can lead to loss of material.

Chemical damage

  • 9  Liénardy Anne en Van Damme Phillipe, Interfolia, Handboek voor de conservatie en de restauratie va (...)

36Chemical damage becomes apparent when changes on the atomic and molecular level take place: the chemical constitution of the photographic material undergoes changes. Chemical damage is caused by substances and gasses that react with the original material of the object, resulting in a change of compounds or a breaking of chemical bonds. The factors light and temperature can also provoke changes on an atomic or molecular level. The damage is caused by hydrolysis, oxidation or photochemical processes.9 These changes are, especially in the first phase, difficult to detect.

  • 10  Maes Herman, “Conservering en ontsluiting van daguerreotypieën”, in: Nederlands Fotomuseum (online (...)

37Chemical damage can appear as colour changes and decomposition of material. The materials used for storage or housing of the objects, such as cassettes, passe-partouts and secondary carriers can contain hazardous elements, such as acids or glue which will react with the original material. Last but not least, serious damage can be provoked by the use of improper materials during conservation.10 In general, two forms of chemical damage can be distinguished, subdivided into more specific damage-types.

Damage characterized by colour changes

38Damage to the objects can become visible as colour change. This change of colour can appear on the entire surface of the object or can be limited to certain parts or areas. The damage is caused by substances or gasses that react with the original materials of the object, changing the structure. The changes are, especially in the first stages, difficult to detect and the changes appear slowly but steadily.

Damage inherent in the material

39Sometimes, chemical damage only occurs in a specific material through the nature and/or instability of the material itself. For example: metal corrosion, glass corrosion, acetate decay (also known as vinegar syndrome, see fig.1) and nitrate decay.

Biological damage

  • 11  Maes Herman, “Conservering en ontsluiting van daguerreotypieën”, in: Nederlands Fotomuseum (online (...)

40Biological damage concerns damage to objects invoked by all living organisms, humans excluded.11 The composition on atomic and molecular level, the micro-structure and substructure, remain the same in a first stage. Just like in mechanical damage, biological damage can have serious consequences on all levels. In a second and later stadium, this type of damage can provoke changes on an atomic and molecular level.

  • 12  IFLA, “Biological Agents”, in: IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Insti (...)

41Biological damage is caused by living organisms that lodge themselves on or in the material.12

  • 13  Liénardy Anne en Van Damme Phillipe, Interfolia, Handboek voor de conservatie en de restauratie va (...)

42The original material is eaten by moulds, insects, rodents and other living creatures. They deposit faeces and often, they find their death in the material.13 Because of the design format of the tree-structure, biological damage caused by four types of living organisms are taken into account and they are also subdivided into specific damage types.

Damage by micro-organisms

43The damage occurs when micro-organisms and moulds lodge themselves onto the material. The original material gets eaten, traces and dirt can be found and the micro-organisms themselves can inflict damage. Micro-organisms feed on organic substances and/or remnants of organic material.

Damage by insects

44Damage by insects is caused by all insects that can provoke damage to objects (for example silver fish and lice). The damage occurs when insects lodge themselves on or in the original material. The original material gets eaten, faeces and dirt are deposited and often insects find their death on or in the material.

Damage by rodents

45This type of damage is caused by all rodents that can provoke damage to objects (most commonly). This damage becomes visible when animals nestle themselves on or between the material. The original material gets eaten, faeces and dirt are deposited and sometimes they find their death in the material.

Damage by other organisms

46This damage is caused by all other living or dead creatures that provoke damage to objects. These are animals such as birds, dogs and cats, but also plants and such can cause damage. The original material gets eaten, faeces and dirt are deposited and sometimes carcasses can be found.

Phenomena that look like damage

  • 14  Marchesi Jost J., Principes van de fototechniek, deel 1, FOTO Special, Uitgeverij FOTO, Leusden, N (...)

47Some phenomena are interpreted as damage, but are in fact not damage to the physical properties of the object. The phenomenon points in the direction of damage or mistakes made early in the creative process14 or a purposeful action of the photographer. These phenomena can be subdivided into five groups.

Mistakes / phenomena before the development of the object (film/negative/photo)

48These phenomena are mistakes or purposeful actions during the lighting with the camera or the enlarger. Some of these phenomena can also occur because of damage to the camera.

Mistakes / phenomena during the development of the film or negative

49These phenomena are mistakes or purposeful actions during the development of the film or negative. The most common examples are: a large grain and over- or underdevelopment of the negative. If a film is pushed (for example when 100 asa is intentionally exposed as 400 asa or more), then the development needs to be adjusted. If the photographer is careless, the grain will appear much bigger and give a granular view. If the proper development time is not respected, or the developer is not used in the right quantities, the image will be either too contrasted or not have enough contrast.

Phenomena that look like damage to the photo through damage to the negative

50If a negative is printed, the image appears in positive on the photo. All the information on the negative will be seen on the final photo. This, also includes damage to the negative. For example dust on a negative will appear as white specks on the photo.

Additions to the negative

51If a negative is printed, the image appears in positive on the photo. All the information on the negative will be seen on the final photo, this also includes additions to the negative. Often retouches and/or coatings are added to the negative to create a certain effect on the photo. Coatings and a particular type of retouches are used to soften the positive image or parts of it. Other types of retouches are used to mask or accentuate certain parts.

Mistakes / phenomena during the development of the photo

52These phenomena are mistakes or purposeful actions that occur while developing a photo.

53This is a part of the initial state, made by the author. For example dominant colours.

Categories of damage

54A category of damage points out the seriousness or extent of damage. A lot of institutions use their own system with two to five categories. Often it is the objects purpose that determines the categorie, such as being presentable for exhibition, for research or archiving.

  • 15 Keene Suzanne, Managing Conservation in Museums, second edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, (...)
  • 16  Ashley-Smith Jonathan, Risk Assessment for Object Conservation, Butterworth-Heinermann, Oxford, UK (...)
  • 17  Keene Suzanne, Managing Conservation in Museums, second edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK (...)

55In general four types of categories15 of damage can be distinguished. The choice for an even number of categories forces us to choose between the better or worse side compared to the middle.16 In categories 1 and 2, objects are relatively stable and no immediate action is needed. In categories 3 and 4, the objects are instable and do require action. Action can be either preventive or curative. There is the possibility to add a fifth category: total loss. This category is used when an object no longer exists or cannot be traced. The categories are made up out of four parameters:17 condition, stability / vulnerability, usability, necessary interactions.

  • Good: Good condition in it’s context. Stable.

  • Reasonable: Damaged but stable. No direct action necessary.

  • Bad: Limited use, most likely unstable. Action desirable.

  • Unacceptable: Weakened, very unstable, contaminated by other objects contaminates other objects. Immediate action necessary.

  • Total loss:The object has decayed, is lost or stolen.

56In the damage atlas, objects are labelled according to their condition into categories 1 to 5, but these are no more then a guideline. When making a damage inventory of a collection, the interpretation can deviate from the categories in the damage atlas.

The construction of a damage atlas by images and characteristics

57Because the damage atlas is intended as a working tool for professionals as well as non-professionals it is crucial to have a swift and easy access to its content. The subdivision is based on visible characteristics, so it is not necessary to know all processes leading up to the damage. The division starts from the characteristics of the damage types, in a tree structure. At the beginning of the atlas, a manual guides the potential user through the atlas.

Tree structure

58A tree structure can be made in numerous formats. Different structures will be tested in a later stage to test the usability. For the time being, tree structure 1(see below) is used, because this form gives the most structured overview of all sorts and types of damage. The thesaurus, the damage images and the glossary were incorporated in this tree structure.

59The tree structure gives each form, type and image of damage a number or code. The numbers or codes form a system in order to quickly find types of damage in the atlas, next to page numbers which are also incorporated in the tree structure. This gives the user the chance to choose between codes or full descriptions of types of damage.

60The four forms of damage make up the branches of the tree structure (table 1): mechanical, chemical, biological damage and phenomena that look like damage. They are clearly recognizable by their colour code and the first letter of the damage form. Then, a subdivision follows, the types of damage. These get numbers, according to the seriousness of the damage. The next subdivisions are the images of damage phenomena. They are also numbered according to the seriousness of the damage rather than alphabetical classification.

61The problem of this structure is that combinations are not clear. An example: the damage image “stains” can be divided into mechanical, chemical or biological damage. Staining can occur in all three damage forms. In the tree structure, stains were classified under mechanical damage, whilst there are forms of staining caused by chemical damage.

Table 1 : Tree structure of damage

Damage

Mechanical damage

M

M1

Damage through pollution

M1-01

Surface dirt

M1-02

Incrusted dirt

M1-03

Finger prints

M1-04

Stains

M2

Damage by object foreign materials

M2-01

Glue residual

M2-02

Adhesive tape

M2-03

Attachments

M2-04

Inscriptions

M2-05

Stamps

M2-06

Retouches

M2-07

Old restorations

M3

Damage through form changes

M3-01

Wrinkles

M3-02

Form change

M3-03

Bubbles on the image/emulsion

M3-04

Bubbles between support and secondary support

M3-05

Imprints

M3-06

Dents

M3-07

Reticulation

M4

Damage through material loss

M4-01

Brittleness

M4-02

Wear and tear

M4-03

Rubbed out parts

M4-04

Scratches

M4-05

Bursts

M4-06

Cracks

M4-07

Splinters

M4-08

Tears

M4-09

Incisions

M4-10

Craquelures

M4-11

Loose emulsion

M4-12

Delamination

M4-13

Perforation

M4-14

Lacunas

M4-15

Loose housings en decorative elements

Chemical damage

C

C1

Damage characterized by colour changes

C1-01

Fading

C1-02

Yellowing

C1-03

Yellowing by Maillard reaction in albumine

C1-04

Discoloring

C1-05

Aciding

C1-06

Silvering

C1-07

Foxing

C1-08

Redox

C1-09

Sulfiding

C1-10

Ink gluttony

C1-11

Moister damage

C1-12

Fire damage

C2

Damage inherent in the material

C2-01

Nitrate decay

C2-02

Vinegar syndrome ( = acetate decay)

C2-03

Metal corrosion

C2-04

Glass corrosion

Biological damage

B

B1

Damage by micro-organisms

B1-01

Micro-organisms and fungi

B2

Damage by insects

B2-01

Excrements and dirt of insects

B2-02

Gluttony of insects

B2-03

Corpses of insects

B3

Damage by rodents

B3-01

Excrements and dirt by rodents

B3-02

Gluttony of rodents

B3-03

Corpses of rodents

B4

Damage by other organisms

B4-01

Excrements and dirt of other organisms

B4-02

Gluttony of other organisms

B4-03

Corpses of other organisms

Phenomena

Phenomena that look like damage

F

F1

Mistakes / phenomena before the development of the object (film/negative/photo)

= the initial state,

F1-01

Unsharpness

F1-02

Moving unsharpness

F1-03

Over / underexposing

F1-04

Reflection

F1-05

Red eyes

F1-06

Vignetting

F1-07

Objects in front of the lens

F1-08

End of the film

F1-09

Dubbelprints

F1-10

Light veil

F2

Mistakes / phenomena during the development of the film or negative

= the initial state

F2-01

Big grain on the photo

F2-02

To much/to low contrast by over/underdeveloping

F3

Phenomena that look like damage to the photo through damage to the negative

F3-01

White spots by dust or dirty negative

F3-02

Objects on the negative

F3-03

Lines by scratches on the negative

F3-04

Reticulation of the negative

F3-05

Errors by cutting the negative or by cadrage

F3-06

Magenta veil by expired film

F4

Additions to the negative

F4-01

Retouches on the negative

F4-02

Coatings on the negative

F5

Mistakes / phenomena during the development of the photo

F5-01

Dominant colours

F5-02

Chemical veil

F5-03

Solarisation

Fig.1 Damage

Fig.1 Damage

Vinegar syndrome on acetate film, in stage 4 of the decay

Credit: Kr.Van Camp

Terminology - Thesaurus

  • 18  Riesthuis Gerhard, et.al., Thesaurusbouw: Handboek voor opleiding en praktijk, Nederlands Biblioth (...)

62In the damage atlas, a thesaurus was incorporated, to help simplify the search for the correct terminology. The thesaurus was used according to international thesaurus standards.18 The endeavour was to take up as much terminology and synonyms as possible, that can be used to speak about damage. In the first column, we find the word, in the second the synonyms, clarified by abbreviations.

Images of damage

63The most important thing in the atlas are the images of specific damage phenomena. For every image, there is an explanation and description of the damage, the course of degradation, the different types of damage if there are any, the causes, the categories, in which processes damage can occur, recommendations for conservation and preservation and a number of photos that can be used as an example. For every image of damage, there is a bibliography. This provides the user to look for extra information on the topic. In a possible later publication these images will be added as illustrations.

Glossary

64Next to the thesaurus, the damage atlas contains a glossary. In this glossary, all images of damage phenomena are incorporated, with a short explanation and their code and the page number where they can be found in the damage atlas. Next to the images of damage, the general terminology used for the images of damage can be found here. The glossary does not contain any photos.

Conclusion

65Understanding the term “damage” in general is difficult because there is no legal definition, and also no framework of reference, to work with. To create this framework, two descriptions of the term “damage” were combined. The framework as presented in this study contains all possible images of damage phenomena that can be found on photographic material. Also research was done to define “condition” and “value”. These terms are closely connected to “damage”. The results of the research have shown that “condition” is most important for the atlas but “value” is not. The damage atlas is only allowed to describe the material and technical condition of the object, without judging its value. This judgement has to be made by the conservator.

66All sorts of damage were divided in different forms, types, categories and causes. A tree structure makes it well-organized. A tree structure is not evident to create and photography itself is a complex matter. Not everyone who is going to work with the atlas is educated in conservation of photography. Dividing all sorts of damage began therefore by the images of damage itself. But even in this well-organised tree structure there are difficulties, combinations for instance are not always clear. Different tree structures were made and for this thesis one structure was chosen. The thesaurus, glossary and the images of damage were based on this structure. In a further stage the atlas will be tested in different forms with different tree structures, and the best working format will be chosen to develop the atlas as a reference document. However, a database can solve any problem with the tree structure and can only be kept on a computer. Different terms can be put in and will lead users to the right image of damage. To make a user-friendly damage atlas it is crucial to continue further research.

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Bibliographie

Not published sources

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Notes

1  Vansweevelt Thierry en Weyts Britt, Handboek Buitencontractueel Aansprakelijkheidsrecht, © Intersentia,  Antwerpen-Oxford, 2009, p. 633.

2  Ashley-Smith Jonathan, “Definitions of Damage”, in: Cool Conservation (online), 1995. http://cool.conservation-us.org/byauth/Ashley-smith/damage.html (10 maart 2010).

3  Dirix Eric, Het begrip schade, Maarten Kluwer’s Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerpen-Apeldoorn,  1997, p. 15-16, partim.

4  Dirix Eric, Het begrip schade, Maarten Kluwer’s Internationale Uitgeversonderneming, Antwerpen-Apeldoorn, 1997, p. 61-67, and: Vansweevelt Thierry en Weyts Britt, Handboek Buitencontractueel Aansprakelijkheidsrecht, © Intersentia, Antwerpen-Oxford, 2009, p. 633.

5  Marijnissen R.H. en Kockaert L., Dialoog met het geschonden beeld, na 250 jaar restauratie, Mercatorfonds, Antwerpen, 1995. p. 58.

6  Boston George, ed., “Safeguarding of our documentary heritage”, in: UNESCO – Memory of the World (online), 2000. http://webworld.unesco.org/safeguarding/en/txt_phot.htm (15 maart 2010).

7  Boston George, ed., “Safeguarding of our documentary heritage”, in: UNESCO – Memory of the World (online), 2000. http://webworld.unesco.org/safeguarding/en/txt_phot.htm(15 maart 2010).

and : IFLA, “External Causes of deterioration”, in : IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (online), 2008. http://archive.ifla.org/VI/6/dswmedia/en/txt_envi.htm (15 maart 2010).

8  IFLA, “Mechanical Forces”, in: IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (online), 2008. http://archive.ifla.org/VI/6/dswmedia/en/txt_envi.htm (15 maart 2010).

9  Liénardy Anne en Van Damme Phillipe, Interfolia, Handboek voor de conservatie en de restauratie van papier,

Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium, Brussel, B, 1989, p. 61-77.

10  Maes Herman, “Conservering en ontsluiting van daguerreotypieën”, in: Nederlands Fotomuseum (online), 2008.

http://www.nederlandsfotomuseum.nl/content/view/211/115/lang,nl/ (22 november 2008).

11  Maes Herman, “Conservering en ontsluiting van daguerreotypieën”, in: Nederlands Fotomuseum (online), 2008.

http://www.nederlandsfotomuseum.nl/content/view/211/115/lang,nl/ (22 november 2008).

12  IFLA, “Biological Agents”, in: IFLANET, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (online), 2008. http://archive.ifla.org/VI/6/dswmedia/en/txt_envi.htm (15 maart 2010).

13  Liénardy Anne en Van Damme Phillipe, Interfolia, Handboek voor de conservatie en de restauratie van papier,

Koninklijk Instituut voor het Kunstpatrimonium, Brussel, B, 1989, p. 77-p.95.

14  Marchesi Jost J., Principes van de fototechniek, deel 1, FOTO Special, Uitgeverij FOTO, Leusden, NL, 1990, p. 55, p. 73. and : Marchesi Jost J., Principes van de fototechniek, deel 2, FOTO Special, Uitgeverij FOTO, Leusden, NL, 1990, p. 41, p. 45. and : Marchesi Jost J., Principes van de fototechniek, deel 3, FOTO Special, Uitgeverij FOTO, Leusden, NL, 1990, p. 16, p. 33, p. 93.

15 Keene Suzanne, Managing Conservation in Museums, second edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 2002, p. 146-p.148.

16  Ashley-Smith Jonathan, Risk Assessment for Object Conservation, Butterworth-Heinermann, Oxford, UK, 1999. p. 111-p.114.

17  Keene Suzanne, Managing Conservation in Museums, second edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 2002, p. 146-p.148.

18  Riesthuis Gerhard, et.al., Thesaurusbouw: Handboek voor opleiding en praktijk, Nederlands Bibliotheek en Lektuur Centrum, Den Haag, NL, 1992.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig.1 Damage
Légende Vinegar syndrome on acetate film, in stage 4 of the decay
Crédits Credit: Kr.Van Camp
URL http://ceroart.revues.org/docannexe/image/1770/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Kristel Van Camp, « Damage Atlas for Photographic materials », CeROArt [En ligne], 1 | 2010, mis en ligne le 19 novembre 2010, consulté le 31 mai 2016. URL : http://ceroart.revues.org/1770

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Auteur

Kristel Van Camp

Kristel Van Camp graduated in 1995 as a photographer. After having worked in the field of professional photography for several years, she decided in 2006 to study Conservation and Restoration of Visual media at the Artesis University College Antwerp. In June 2010 she achieved a Masters Degree in this complimentary specialization. Following her graduation in 2010, she is now preparing the damage atlas for publication.

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Licence Creative Commons
CeROArt – Conservation, exposition, restauration d'objets d'arts est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International.

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